of the DIRECTOR
NA TIONAL PARK SER VICE
SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Reprinted from the
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY
OF THE INTERIOR
For the Fiscal Tear Ended June 30, 1958
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Conrad L. Wirth, Director
HE YEAR 1958 for the National Park Service and the National
ark System was marked by an unusual record of progress and ac-
omplishment. In its second year, Mission 66 remained essentially
n schedule, and with new and improved facilities and services com-
lg rapidly into evidence, public approval and acclaim of this
ynamic conservation and development program rose to new heights.
At least a part of this widespread approval was due to the emerg-
g realization on the part of the American people that, despite the
irge-scale development of new and improved visitor facilities, the
lission 66 program actually is applying even more emphasis to the
^reservation undisturbed of the great wilderness areas of the national
>arks and monuments. As work on Mission 66 projects advanced it
iecame more clearly evident to proponents of park conservation that
he vast wilderness areas — as well as the sense of undisturbed wilder-
less essential to the full enjoyment of even the most visited parts of a
lational park — were being treated as a priceless resource to be zeal-
msly safeguarded and preserved.
During the 12-month period a total of $65,701,300 was expended or
bligated for some 736 construction projects, including new and im-
proved campsites and visitor centers. At the same time private
capital invested more than $5,500,000 in the construction of public
iccommodations and related service facilities, increasing overnight
capacities by approximately 1,800.
One of the most dramatic examples of the economy, efficiency, and
idequacy of the Mission 66 approach to meeting the expanding needs
)f park improvement was provided by the Canyon Village develop-
nent in Yellowstone National Park. There a new lodge, cabins,
campgrounds, trailer court, visitor center and museum, store, service
station, and other facilities were completed and in use at the end of
he fiscal year. Completion of that project not only made overnight
282 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
accommodations available for nearly 4,000 visitors but also will make
it possible to raze the old lodges and cabins from the rim of the Grand
Canyon of the Yellowstone and begin the esthetically vital work of
restoration and preservation there.
Similar projects — also designed to meet the needs of the ever-
increasing numbers of park visitors — were completed at Colter Bay
in Grand Teton National Park, in the Mather area of Grand Canyon
National Park, and at Flamingo in Everglades National Park.
Other highlights of Mission 66 accomplishments during the fiscal
year included completion of the Dinosaur Visitor Center; the com-
pleted development of Jamestown Island, Colonial Parkway, and
Yorktown for full use during the year-long celebration of the 350th
anniversary of the landing of the Jamestown colonists ; completion of
Stevens Canyon road in Mount Rainier, the East Side road in Grand
Teton, and the Park Road in Everglades National Park; and the
launching of the Ranger III, passenger boat to serve Isle Royale
In the last 3 months of the fiscal year added impetus was given to
the program when contracting for new work was speeded up as part
of the Administration's anti-recession program. During that period
contracts amounting to almost $34 million were let for work on roads,
parkways, buildings, and other facilities.
One of the essential elements in the carrying forward of the work
of Mission 66 is a broad and comprehensive legislative program.
Under guidance of the Administration and the Department through-
out fiscal year 1958, coordination and direction were provided by the
National Park Service for such a program with notable results in the
form of congressional action. For example, after many years an ac-
ceptable boundary was fixed for Everglades National Park. Ex-
change authority was obtained through which private lands in Olym-
pic National Park may be acquired. The establishment of Fort
Clatsop National Memorial was authorized to commemorate the suc-
cessful crossing of the continent by the Lewis and Clark Expedition,
and National Park status was made possible for Petrified Forest Na-
Meanwhile other legislation pending in Congress at the end of the
fiscal year would authorize establishment of national parks on Cape
Cod, Mass., and Padre Island, Tex. ; preservation of an undeveloped
stretch of the Indiana Dunes on the shore of Lake Michigan as s
national monument; transfer of Grant's Tomb in New York Citj
to Federal ownership as a national memorial ; and creation of a Granc
Portage National Monument in Minnesota.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 283
Surveys of Pacific Coast and Great Lakes Shoreline
During the fiscal year marked progress was made on the shoreline
surveys financed by donated funds. The master report for the Pa-
ine Coast Seashore Survey was completed, with summary analysis
of 75 areas. Separate reports were prepared for 7 coastal areas of
najor importance of which 3 have been given favorable consideration
for national status by the Advisory Board on National Parks, His-
toric Sites, Buildings, and Monuments.
Field work for the recreation resource survey of the Great Lakes
shoreline was largely completed, and the final report is scheduled to
^o to press by December 31. Reports have been prepared on 48 areas.
National Survey of Outdoor Recreation Resources
Work was initiated on a national inventory of existing parks and
recreation areas and their facilities and of potential areas suitable
for administration at various levels of government. The results of
this inventory will be made available to the National Outdoor Recre-
ation Resources Review Commission, established by congressional act
in June 1958.
Historic Surveys Resumed
Two historical survey programs, begun in the 1930's but suspended
since the beginning of World War II, were resumed during the fiscal
year. One is the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings.
In this program the history of this country has been divided into a
total of 21 themes, each theme covering a specific segment of history
and pre-history on the continent, Work was started during the fiscal
year on preparation of reports on historic sites and buildings of five
of these periods of history. The second survey program resumed
was the Historic American Building Survey. Through the student
assistance program measured drawings were completed for many his-
toric buildings not previously included in the survey. Drawings
were finished on partially completed surveys remaining after sus-
pension of the work in 1941.
The upward curve in park attendance continued, though the rate
of increase receded somewhat below the past 10-year cycle. In the
calendar year 1957 there were 59,285,000 visitors, an increase of 7.9
percent over the 54,923,000 total recorded in 1956.
CAMPFIRE TALK. — Scenes of the National Parks and explanations of theii
scientific and historic wonders are unfolded by a National Park ranger at ar
illustrated campfire talk in Badlands National Monument. Mission 66 has
enabled the Park Service to recruit more rangers and to expand its interpre
tive service to park visitors. National Park Service Photo.
During fiscal year 1958 a total of $1,889,650 was made available foi
land acquisition, including $400,500 from donations. Some 25,49£
acres of inholdings were acquired by purchase, donation, and exchange
for addition to 26 areas of the National Park System. Transfer oi
Federal lands added 256.19 acres to two areas.
Donations of lands included 367 acres from the Territory of Hawai:
for Hawaii National Park ; 2,261 acres from the State of North Caro
lina for Blue Kidge Parkway ; 1,540 acres from the State of Tennessee
and 63 acres from the State of Mississippi for Natchez Trace Park-
way ; 7.5 acres from the State of South Dakota for Mount Rushmor<
National Memorial ; and 5.6 acres from the City of Richmond for Rich
mond National Battlefield Park. Other donations of lands by individ
uals added significant acreages to Acadia National Park, Blue Ridg<
Parkway, Colonial National Historical Park, Death Valley and Effigy
Mounds National Monuments, Fort Caroline National Memorial, an(
Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park.
Approximately 160 options were approved for acquisition of abou
6,580 acres of land and interests in lands in 20 areas. Ten options, to
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 285
taling $222,675 and covering 853.91 acres of land in six areas of the
National Park System were processed for use with 1959 fiscal year land
Seven concession contracts were negotiated during the year. These
called for construction programs at Mount McKinley and Grand Teton
National Parks, and Blue Ridge Parkway, representing investments
)f about $645,600.
Both staff increases as Mission 66 progresses, and earlier retirements
3ecause of liberalized retirement legislation, have made it vitally nec-
essary that new park rangers, historians, naturalists, and archeologists
become soundly grounded early in their careers in Park Service history,
Dolicies, and practices This requirement was recognized by the Con-
gress in fiscal year 1957 when it approved the establishment of a traili-
ng center for career-conditional uniformed employees at Yosemite Na-
;ional Park on a 3-year trial basis. During the past year this new in-
stitution conducted its first two intensive 3-month training courses.
Each course enrolled 25 trainees, who received basic information and
skills training in protection, interpretation, and visitor services, and
is a result were considerably better qualified for their duties.
The outstanding celebration of the year was the Jamestown, Wil-
iamsburg, Yorktown celebration commemorating the 350th anniver-
sary of the founding of the first permanent English settlement in
:he New World at Jamestown in 1607, the flowering of Virginia cul-
:ure and statesmanship at Williamsburg on the eve of and during the
Revolution, and the final winning of American independence at
Yorktown, Va., in 1781. The celebration was marked by the opening
)f new National Park Service visitor centers and museums at James-
gown and Yorktown, by the visit of Queen Elizabeth II and many
Ither distinguished visitors to Jamestown and Williamsburg, and by
he reenactment of the siege of Yorktown and the surrender of Corn-
ivallis at Yorktown on October 19. The State of Virginia cooperated
jy building replicas of the three ships that brought the first colonists
'o Jamestown and by reconstructing a full-scale likeness of James
Fort at Glasshouse Point. The Jamestown Glasshouse Foundation,
[nc, representing the American glassworkers and glass industry, re-
286 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
constructed and operated the Jamestown Glasshouse of 1608, one of
the high points of interest of the entire celebration.
Secretary Fred A. Seaton was the principal speaker at the 34th
annual establishment day celebration June 1 in Craters of the Moon
National Monument, Idaho. Dedication of the new visitor center
was a significant part of that celebration.
Assistant Secretary Roger C. Ernst was the principal speaker at
the dedication June 1 of the new visitor center in Dinosaur National
Monument, Utah and Colorado.
For the third successive year the peak of Mount McKinley, Mount
McKinley National Park, Alaska, remained unclimbed. Unlike pre-
vious years, Nature imposed a new obstacle which consisted of the
spectacular movement of the Muldrow Glacier during the winter of
1956-57. This tremendous ice movement resulted in several large ice
waves moving downward, erecting great seracs and an impasse for
climbers using the conventional route. A party of eight climbers was
turned back after spending 17 days on their attempted climb.
Highest elevation reached was 8,500 feet, considerably less than half
of the peak altitude of 20,320 feet.
One of the historic structures in the Death Valley area was de-
stroyed during the year when vandals removed the evaporating vat
and stack of the Eagle Borax Works. This was the first commercial
effort to produce borax in Death Valley and the works was con-
structed in 1881 by Isadore Daunet. The vats were hauled nearly 300
miles across the desert, by wagons, from Los Angeles. Although the
venture was not successful financially and closed down 1 year later
it represented the spirit and physical effort that the early pioneers
exerted to develop the mining industry.
Launching of Ranger III
Ranger III, the new 100-passenger motor vessel that will provide
passenger-cargo service to Isle Roy ale National Park, Mich., from
Houghton, Mich., was christened and launched in special ceremonies
at Sturgeon Bay, Wis., on June 21, 1958. The celebration was spon-
sored by the firm that constructed the boat under a $1,159,680
National Park Service contract.
Ranger III was scheduled to be placed in operation in fiscal year
1959, at w T hich time the scenic beauty of Isle Royale National Park
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 287
will become more accessible to greater numbers of visitors. Trans-
portation to the park in past seasons has been limited to a 16-passenger
Doat operated by the Park Service out of Houghton, Mich., and to
privately owned vessels out of Grand Portage, Minn., and Copper
Harbor, Mich. Service from the latter two points will continue. The
new boat will make the 75-mile trip from the Michigan mainland to
the park in approximately 5 hours as compared with the 7 hours re-
quired in the past.
Construction of the new vessel is one of a number of projects for
development of the park under the Mission 66 program. Isle Royale
National Park, containing more than 800 square miles of land and
water, consists of some 200 islands in Lake Superior. Isle Royale,
the largest, contains about 210 square miles.
PROGRESS ON MISSION 66
It has now become impossible to separate Mission 66 from the
total National Park program. During the planning stage Mission 66
had an identity of its own. Today it is so integrated with the overall
Service program that the words Mission 66 simply mean a total
National Park program, full-scope, fast-moving, and conducted on a
larger scale than ever before.
Thus all elements of the original Mission 66 plan, described in de-
tail elsewhere in this report, demonstrated renewed and expanded
activity. Numerous legislative matters in support of individual area
Mission 66 programs were submitted to Congress.
With all prospectuses completed and approved, except for a few
special cases, Mission 66 staff work in support of the overall program
focused upon special problems and upon the improvement of the
efficiency of the internal operations of the Service. Special studies of
Yosemite Valley, Mesa Verde National Park, and National Capital
Parks, were undertaken leading toward the solution of complex pro-
tection, use, and development problems. Studies were well advanced
in the development of an improved organizational structure for the
Service, and in the clarification and strengthening of the instruments
of planning and administrative control.
New positions in the field service were filled, resulting in an im-
mediate improvement of public services, a stronger defense and attack
against forest fire, forest pests, and other destructive agents, and more
adequate maintenance of park facilities.
In an attempt to attract a higher quality of new recruits in the in-
creasingly competitive field of park planning, park administration,
protection, and interpretation, booklets describing the employment
opportunities in the National Park System were prepared and will be
issued in time for next year's recruitment season.
498491 O -59 -2
288 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
In the field of public information, in addition to numerous press re-
leases and the release of the fourth of a series of tape-recorded slide-
illustrated programs on Mission 66, the Staff prepared and released a
leaflet Mission 66 in Action reporting the first year of progress, and
an illustrated brochure entitled The National Park Wilderness. Both
publications were published through the generosity of the Jackson
Hole Preserve, Inc. The latter publication defines the protection and
preservation responsibilities of the Service, reviews the record of the
past, and points out how these responsibilities will continue to be met
in the future under the Mission 66 program. This publication is re-
garded by the Service as a very important interpretation of wilderness
preservation policy for the guidance of the Service, as well as for the
information of the general public.
The National Park Service, through its various interpretive pro-
grams, makes a substantial contribution to the conservation movement
in America. Through interpretation, park visitors gain understand-
ing of nature's workings and of our country's history. Knowledge of
nature and the past promotes thoughtful consideration of the present
and the future. Through this understanding and consideration the
cause of conservation is served.
It is seldom realized what a potent force the parks and monuments
are in the teaching of conservation. The millions who participate in
the interpretive programs learn the lessons of conservation in the best
possible setting. Fortunately, through Mission 66, the interpretive
programs are developing rapidly to meet the ever-increasing demands
for such services in the areas of the National Park System.
Services to Public
The steady increase in the number of visitors receiving interpretive
services was continued during the year. In every category of inter-
pretive services the number of park visitors served was greater than in
previous years. In the calendar year 1957 the number of visitors who
participated in trips conducted by naturalists and historians rose to
2,404,474. Nearly seven and a half million persons heard talks given
by Park Service personnel and more than 25,000,000 were assisted by
various forms of self -guiding devices. While all of these figures rep-
resented substantial visitor participation increases throughout the
park areas, the greatest increase occurred in the number of talks given
and attendance at the talks in historical-archeological areas.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 289
A vital element of the park interpretive programs is the visitor
center. It represents the hub of interpretive and informational serv-
ices for that part of the park where it is located. In the visitor center
the park visitor learns what to do and what to see. Exhibits explain
the features or events that make the park of national significance.
During the fiscal year a total of eight new visitor centers were com-
pleted and opened to the public; 18 others were in various stages of
construction, and plans were in preparation for still others.
Using a variety of media, each visitor center is designed to tell
those parts of the park story which can best be treated at a central
location. Colorful panels, models, specimens, dioramas, and audio-
visual devices are skillfully employed to tell the story in an accurate
and interesting manner.
A unique exhibit is found in the newly completed visitor center
at Dinosaur National Monument. The story told here is about
dinosaurs and their world, but visitors are also interested in watching
men work in the fossil quarry. Consequently, almost every day a
paleontologist and his crew may be found at work there. At no
other place in the world can a park visitor have the thrilling experi-
ence of watching men uncover the fossil bones of long extinct
Roadside and Trailside Interpretation
The introduction given the visitor to the park areas by the new
visitor centers was supplemented in 1958 by a new approach to the
development of more effective roadside and trailside interpretive
Teams were established to work together in planning the roadside
and trailside exhibits and signs so that these devices would be care-
fully coordinated with other interpretive facilities of the parks.
These teams included a park interpreter, a landscape architect, and a
representative of the Museums Exhibit Planning Teams.
Results of their work can be seen in the roadside interpretative
plans completed, typical of which were those for the Flamingo Road,
Everglades National Park, and in the Richmond National Battle-
field Park. Work was well advanced on a number of other similar
Audio-Visual Planning and Installation
Significant further progress was made during the year in the use
of audio-visual equipment to supplement personal interpretive serv-
290 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
ices for visitors in the parks. With the assistance of the Audio-Visual
Committee, the Chief Naturalist gave special attention to a program
for coordination of audio-visual planning and installation with new
building projects. Emphasis also was placed on acquainting equip-
ment manufacturers with Park Service interpretive programs, and
on the accomplishment of major installations by contract. Signifi-
cant among contract installations were the fully automatic slide
projectors with synchronized sound installed in the two new visitor
centers at Colonial National Historical Park.
The Western Museum Laboratory, which had been closed at the
approach of World War II, was reestablished in San Francisco in
the old United States Mint Building. Like the Eastern Museum
Laboratory in Washington, it builds exhibits for the new facilities
being constructed under Mission 66. Its first assignment was the
preparation of exhibits for the Quarry Visitor Center, Dinosaur Na-
NEW JAMESTOWN VISITOR CENTER.— This new structure on the grounds
of historic Jamestown Island was completed under the Mission 66 program
in time for the 1957 celebration of the 350th anniversary of the first permanent
English colony's founding in America. Hundreds of thousands of visitors
came to the new center for information during the year.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 291
At the same time, during the year, the Eastern Museum Labora-
tory completed new exhibits for a total of 10 park areas, and con-
struction was under way on exhibits for 14 additional areas.
In addition, the Museum Planning Teams attached to the Eastern
and Western Laboratories assisted park areas with museum planning
programs and with preservation of their collections.
Of significance during the year was a revision of the National Park
Service museum records system, designed to preserve more efficiently
the scientific and historical collections in its care. As a part of the
new program, each region appointed a museum curator to assist park
staffs in bringing records up to date and work on the revising and up-
dating of records was gotten under way in more than three -fourths of
the parks. A Museum Records Handbook was issued, and hundreds
of valuable museum specimens were added to accountability records.
At the same time, considerable progress was made in bringing acces-
sion records up to date. At the close of the fiscal year, the detailed
cataloging of individual specimens was in progress in many park areas.
The research program was widened and accelerated during the fis-
cal year, with a number of significant and tangible results. A project
was inaugurated at Harpers Ferry National Monument to collect and
collate all available data on the appearance and history of the town,
the armory, and the arsenal. Archeological and historical investiga-
tions begun in 1957 at Fort McHenry National Monument continued
through 1958. Archeological and historical salvage operations con-
tinued in many of the major reservoir areas throughout the United
States. A new archeological salvage program was inaugurated in
the Upper Colorado River Basin where many heretofore unknown
archeological sites were found in the Glen Canyon Reservoir and
Navajo Indian Reservoir areas.
Important progress was made in the restoration of Independence
Hall, with the removal of mucli paint from interior and exterior
woodwork and the repair of exposed areas. In this connection, archi-
tectural investigation of the Tower Room produced valuable knowl-
edge about the original carvings of the 1750's.
In natural history, a broad spectrum of studies was carried on. A
research conference in Everglades outlined needed studies and several
were gotten under way. Continuous studies of Blue Glacier in
Olympic were effected. Detailed studies were made of Yellowstone
thermal areas and Mammoth Cave siltation. A program of Alpine
Wilderness research was initiated, as was a similar project of research
on the biology of the United States Virgin Islands.
292 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
A significant advance in the conduct of basic wildlife research in
the National Park System was made during the fiscal year. The
Division of Interpretation was given specific responsibilities for
developing the biological research program by stepping up Service-
conducted investigations and encouraging cooperative research by
qualified scientists and established research institutions. Similarly,
the Division of Ranger Activities was given specific and increased
responsibilities for the protection and management of biological re-
sources. Coordination of these activities will provide the greater
attention required if the fish and wildlife and other animals of the
National Park System are to be adequately preserved for public
INFORMATION AND PUBLICATIONS
As park visitation set new records and the Mission 66 program
moved into high gear, public interest in the National Park System
was reflected in an unprecedented demand for factual reports and
publications dealing with the 180 areas of the System.
To meet this demand the Service produced some 12,000,000 free
informational publications for distribution in the parks and to re-
spond to inquiries from all over the United States and many foreign
lands. The Washington Office alone responded to 55,000 inquiries for
Supplementing the free informational program was the publication
of handbooks on the historical significance and natural history of
park areas, and the scientific findings of researchers in the parks.
During the year four new handbooks — Theodore Koosevelt and the
Badlands, Dinosaur Quarry, Scotts Bluff, and Montezuma Castle —
were added to the series and the Hopewell Village Historical Hand-
book was revised. These handbooks are sold by the Superintendent
of Documents for a modest price. During the year nearly 500,000
Park Service publications were sold.
The informational program was strengthened during the year by
the assignment of Regional Publications Officers to each of the five
Regional Offices with the primary assignment of improving the qual-
ity and timeliness of service publications.
The public was kept informed of the progress of Mission 66
through releases issued by the Washington Office concerning events
of national interest. Park Superintendents issued informative re-
leases on developments in their areas. Individual assistance was
given numerous writers for magazines, newspapers, radio, and tele-
vision stations and motion picture companies.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 293
Mission 66 provides for additional interpretive personnel in the
parks and monuments. In the past year a total of 39 new permanent
interpretive positions was filled by naturalists, historians, and arche-
ologists. These men, and the larger numbers of seasonal personnel,
accounted for the increased visitor services rendered in 1958, and
enabled the National Park Service better to meet its responsibilities
to ever increasing numbers of park visitors.
Important celebration commissions established during the year
pursuant to congressional acts included the Theodore Roosevelt Cen-
tennial Commission, the Civil War Centennial Commission, and the
Abraham Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission.
Following a study of the organizational structure of the Division,
designed to promote more efficient operation, the protection functions
of the Branch of Conservation and Protection became the Division of
Ranger Activities, with the Maintenance Section of that Branch re-
maining in the Operations Division as the Branch of Maintenance.
As reorganized, the Division was enabled more effectively to admin-
ister programing, concessioner management, land acquisition, and
Despite increased pressures, construction programing during the
fiscal years was more effective than ever before, large quantities of
inholdings were eliminated, many additional visitor accommodations
were provided, and physical facilities were preserved and improved.
Fulfillment of Mission 66 requires a broad and successful legislative
program. Coordination and direction were provided for this program
during the year and weeks before Congress adjourned, 18 items had
been enacted in the second session. The financial restrictions which
hampered administration of Virgin Islands National Park were re-
moved. After many years an acceptable boundary was fixed for
Everglades National Park. Exchange authority was obtained through
which private lands in Olympic National Park may be acquired. The
establishment of Fort Clatsop National Memorial was authorized to
commemorate the successful crossing of the continent by the Lewis
294 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
and Clark Expedition. National Park status was made possible for
Petrified Forest National Monument. The authority to grant con-
cession contracts for periods up to 20 years was increased to a max-
imum of 30 years, thus assisting concessioners in financing large scale
visitor accommodations called for by Mission 66.
New Program Adjustment Form
A special form was prepared and used for all development program
adjustments. This form provides all data necessary for review- and
approval of program adjustments in a uniform and documentary
manner. The new procedure is quicker and more efficient than the old
Accelerated Development Program
With the objective of strengthening employment, development
projects proposed for execution in fiscal year 1959 were reviewed and
those for which plans were well developed or required very little plan
preparation were advanced to fiscal year 1958. Procedures were estab-
lished for rapid handling of plan approvals and contract awards to
facilitate getting the maximum number of projects under way. Net
result was the awarding of contracts for 39 roads and trails projects,
9 parkways projects and 58 buildings and utilities projects. Roads
and trails and parkways projects were financed by advancing contract
authority in the amount of $14,765,500. Buildings and utilities proj-
ects were financed on a loan basis to the extent of 1958 projects which
could not be accomplished this fiscal year.
Improved programing methods and procedures were developed at
a meeting of all field programs officers held in Washington early in
June. This was the first meeting of this group since establishment of
the Branch of Programs in 1954.
Discussions at the meeting produced a beneficial exchange of ideas
on such specific problems as (1) progress on accomplishment of proj-
ects in the current fiscal year program; (2) program adjustments to
meet emergency situations; and (3) progress in the formulation of
firm advance programs for study purposes and as an aid in preparing
advance planning data, thus assuring better quality project data.
Seven concession contracts were negotiated during the year. These
called for construction programs at Mount McKinley and Grand Teton
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 295
National Parks, and Blue Ridge Parkway, representing investments
of about $645,600. Highlights in this field were conclusion of contracts
with Mount McKinley National Park Company to operate McKinley
Park Hotel and related facilities in Mount McKinley, and Virginia
Peaks of Otter Company to install and operate facilities on the north-
ern portion of Blue Ridge Parkway which resulted from a prospectus
issued last year.
Three prospectuses were issued soliciting offers for operation of
facilities at Lake Mead, Olympic, and National Capital Parks. No
contracts have yet been negotiated as a result, although offers have been
received in response to the National Capital Parks prospectus.
The New Canyon Village concessioner development in Yellowstone
was dedicated August 31, 1057, representing an investment in excess
of $6,000,000. A new concession building and an employee dormitory
at Mount Rushmore, costing about $700,000, were dedicated August
25, 1957. Lodge type accommodations, a trailer village and cafeteria
were completed by Fred Harvey at the Mather area of Grand Canyon.
The Everglades Park Company development in Everglades National
Park, consisting of overnight accommodations, restaurant and lounge,
and marine facilities at Flamingo, costing about $900,000, was com-
pleted. Also, concessioner construction and improvement programs
were completed at Mammoth Cave, Big Bend, Carlsbad Caverns, Cra-
ter Lake, Glacier, Isle Royale, Olympic, Rocky Mountain, Shenan-
doah, Bryce Canyon, and Yosemite National Parks, Canyon de Chelly
and Statue of Liberty National Monuments, Lake Mead National Rec-
reation Area, and Cape Hatteras National Seashore, with investments
totaling about $1,332,609. Major construction programs were also un-
dertaken at Yosemite by Yosemite Park and Curry Company and
Degnan, Donohoe, Inc.
Concession Booklet and Reports
A new and popular booklet, Visitor Accommodations in Areas Ad-
ministered by the National Park Service, was published; a report on
the review of concessions and special use permits for service operations
m National Capital Parks was submitted to the Secretary; an interim
report on additional overnight accommodations planned under Mis-
sion (i(; was submitted to the Assistant Secretary; and a study of the
498491 O - 59 -3
296 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
feasibility of constructing and operating overnight facilities at high
elevations in Mount Rainier, being financed by Jackson Hole Preserve,
Inc., was commenced by a private firm.
Special Uses of Park Lands
The majority of special use permits issued during the past year
continued to be for agricultural use of small parcels of land to main-
tain historical and rural scenes, for access facilities from private
lands to park roads, and for utility lines.
The number of requests for information on prospecting and mining
in national parks and monuments and vacation cabin sites in na-
tional recreation areas remained about the same as in previous years.
Water Resources and Water Rights
Testimony concerning water use and needs in the 21 Service areas
in the Lower Colorado River Basin was presented in May 1958, in
the Federal intervention in the suit between Arizona and California
before the Supreme Court. Condemnation of the Saratoga Springs
Tract of 160 acres and appurtenant springs and water rights at Death
Valley National Monument and of private interests, including wells
and springs, on 24,699.22 acres in the southwest portion of Organ
Pipe Cactus National Monument was completed after several years
of effort to identify owners and define interests. The suits were filed
as a friendly move to clear title.
A study, fundamentally engineering in character, was made to
consider the feasibility and practicability of providing year-round
service for visitors to Yellowstone National Park. The study group
was composed of a representative from the State Highway Depart-
ment of Colorado; a consultant, formerly with the California State
Highway Department; a representative from the American Auto-
mobile Association of Denver; and a representative from the Bu-
reau of Public Roads, as well as Service personnel. Highway
Department representatives from Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming
participated in the study as observers. The Snow Survey Commit-
tee concluded that while it was possible to keep interior roads and
entrances open on a year-round basis, this was not practical since
estimated potential maximum load was only 140 vehicles a day during
the winter. The Committee recommended target dates of November
1 and May 1 for closing and opening, except in the case of the Cooke
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
City-Red Lodge road where their recommendation was October 15
and June 1. The findings of the Committee have been endorsed
and approved as target dates for subsequent years.
The Service's financial position was further strengthened through
increased appropriations for 1958, the second year of the Mission 66
program. A comparison of the 1958 appropriations with those for
1957 is as follows:
1957 fiscal year
1958 fiscal year
Increase (+) or
decrease (— )
Management and protection . .. ..
$11, 562, 000
10, 158, 000
1, 250, 000
15, 250, 000
29, 800, 000
$14, 150, 000
1, 330, 000
17, 400, 000
31, 000, 000
+$2, 588, 000
Maintenance and rehabilitation of physical facilities
+2, 150, 000
Construction (liquidation of contract authorization)
+1, 200, 000
Total cash appropriations
Construction (amount by which roads and trails and
parkways contract authorization exceeds or is less than
cash appropriation) __ . . .... ...
68, 020, 000
-6, 300, 000
75, 480, 000
+7, 460, 000
+22, 065, 500
61, 720, 000
91, 245, 500
29, 525, 500
Of the total increase in cash appropriations, about $1,140,000 was
for contributions to the United States Civil Service Retirement Fund
as authorized by Public Law 854 approved July 31, 1956. The in-
crease of $29,525,500 in total new obligational authority includes
$14,765,500 of 1959 fiscal year contract authorization, as provided in
the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, w T hich was advanced for
obligation during 1958 as an economy stimulating measure. This
advance enabled the Service to get under way during the last quar-
ter of the fiscal year the greatest amount of construction work that
has ever been gotten under way during any comparable period in
Program for Improvement in Financial Management
Continued progress was made throughout the year in the prosecu-
tion of the Service's plan for improvement in financial management.
Work continued on development of the new accounting manual which
is now about 90 percent complete and which is being used through-
out the Service in draft form. A significant improvement in finan-
cial management was realized during the year from operations under
the new accounting system, particularly in accounting control over
298 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
the accelerated construction programs. Another item worthy of men-
tion in the Financial Management Improvement program was com-
pletion of a study to determine what changes, if any, in the Service's
budget structure were necessary to synchronize it to the fullest extent
possible with the organizational structure. The study was completed
and at the close of the fiscal year recommendations resulting from it,
which we feel will bring about substantial improvement in the Serv-
ice's budget and accounting operations, were being considered by the
Completion of Visitor Fee Study
During the year the study of the Service's visitor fee system, which
was commenced in 1955 in accordance with a recommendation of the
Organization and Management Survey but which was suspended
prior to completion, was resumed and completed. Recommendations
for changes in the fee system were submitted for the Secretary's
The Service's 18th General Administration Training Course was
conducted in April in Santa Fe, N. Mex., for 27 selected Region Three
Various improvements in the Service's training program were de-
veloped, including an employee training record form and a require-
ment for counseling employees to encourage their self-development
through additional training or lateral transfer.
Classification and Wage Matters
The most noteworthy development in this area was the approval of
new position classification standards for park rangers, replacing
standards dating from 1948. Based on the new standards, nearly
nine-tenths of all park ranger positions have been up-graded, thus
putting the Service in a much more favorable position for recruiting
and retaining high-caliber men as park rangers.
Also, the Service participated successfully in the newly inaugurated
voluntary program for the coordination of wage surveys among
Reflecting widespread changes in economic conditions, we experi-
enced throughout the Service a tremendous increase in applications
BEFORE AND AFTER.— Above, the historic Beauregard House in Chalmette
National Historical Park, near New Orleans, La., as it appeared before recon-
struction got underway under the Mission 66 program of the National Park
Service. The restored mansion as dedicated as a park visitor center and head-
quarters on May IS, 1958, is shown below.
300 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
for seasonal positions and for positions not requiring extensive train-
ing or experience. Architects, landscape architects, and engineers as
well as biologists, archeologists, and stenographers, continued to be
in short supply.
Our participation in the Department's incentive awards program
received a great deal of attention from top management in Washing-
ton and throughout the Service. Participation rate markedly ex-
ceeded 1957 accomplishments with respect to cash awards for superior
performance and at least equaled 1957 with respect to suggestions
and honor awards. The Service's recommendation of a Conservation
Service Award for the Jamestown Glass House Foundation, Inc., was
approved by the Secretary.
New Branch Established
Through consolidation of the functions of the Branch of Office
Services and the property management functions of the Branch of
Finance, a Branch of Property and Records Management was estab-
lished in the Division of Administration. This change puts greater
emphasis organizationally on staff responsibility for property and
paper work management functions, which, we believe, is a step in
the right direction, although more remains to be done. The Branch
is broken down into Property Management, Records Management,
and General Services Sections.
In the property management field, special attention has been given
to the preparation of material for the property management portions
of the National Park Service Administrative Manual and to a hand-
book on purchasing and contracting. A Museum Records Handbook
was written, published, and placed in use and substantial headway
has been made in establishing satisfactory museum specimen records.
At the year's end, consideration was being given to the application of
automatic data processing techniques to property accounting.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 301
The Records Management Section has been assigned the responsi-
bility for coordinating and directing the revision of the National
Park Service Administrative Manual as part of our directives man-
agement program. Notwithstanding personnel limitations, encourag-
ing progress is being made in that field as well as in forms, reports,
and correspondence management. Much progress has been made
throughout the Service during the year in the field of paper work
management, including records scheduling and disposition.
Both the Mail and File Units of the General Services Section were
reorganized to provide more effective and efficient operations required
to keep abreast of the increasing volume of work resulting from the
expanding programs of the Service. A physical inventory of all
Washington Office nonexpendable property was undertaken and com-
pleted by the Supply Unit with the cooperation of all offices. One
additional position was authorized for the General Services Section
during the year, modern equipment was installed, and improved
methods adopted. Operations reached a higher level of efficiency
and further improvement is dependent on authorization for the em-
ployment of several additional people.
Orientation and Refresher Courses
A more thorough and uniform training program for clerical and
stenographic personnel was undertaken and an instructor's guide is
being prepared to assist in the continuing training of this important
Correspondence instructions are being revised and put into hand-
book form for ready reference by personnel concerned with corre-
spondence preparation. The job was nearing completion as the year
With an increase of 7.9 percent in the number of visitors in the
calendar year 1957, there was a decrease of 14 percent in the number
of visitor-accident fatalities. Motor vehicles and drownings con-
tinued as the two leading: causes of visitor-accident fatalities.
302 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Activity increased during the year on small boat safety. As a
result of the report of the Bonner Committee, a National Conference
on Small Boat Safety was called by the United States Coast Guard to
which the Service sent two representatives.
Special Training Course for Employees
Through the cooperation of the Coast Guard, arrangements were
made for eight employees of the National Park Service to be given
training to enable them to examine applicants for licenses to operate
motor boats carrying passengers for hire on nonnavigable waters in
areas administered by the Service.
The Branch of Safety has been handling both employee and visitor
safety for many years. In an effort to carry out the responsibilities
more efficiently, a study was made during the year to reorganize the
Branch of Safety and allow more time for the program of employee
safety. The Chief Safety Officer as Vice Chairman of the Depart-
ment Safety Council has been cooperating with the Department in
its employee safety program.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
The construction programs of the National Park Service during the
1958 fiscal year involved a cash availability for all purposes, includ-
ing previous year carry-over balances and advances of contractual
authority, of $72,223,431. Of this amount approximately 96 percent
had been obligated at the close of the fiscal year. This accomplish-
ment involved the award of approximately 540 individual construc-
tion contracts and the completion of many day labor projects.
In addition, to meet the design and construction demands of the
extremely diversified and extensive program without expansion of
the design office forces, approximately 27 contracts for professional
architectural and engineering services were entered into with com-
mercial firms or individuals.
The optimum use of services available under cooperative agree-
ments with the Bureau of Public Roads, the Public Health Service,
and the United States Forest Service was continued, as were the
student assistant and trainee programs.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 303
Roads and Trails
Major road projects totaling $25,750,000 were started. Completed
projects amounted to 175 miles at a cost of $9,728,000. The sum of
$5,626,000 for additional work was obligated prior to June 30 raising
the total work under construction to $32,142,000. Of this, 1959 fiscal
year projects accounted for $8,800,000 which were obligated or ad-
vertised for obligation by June 30, through advance contract authori-
Completion of the final stages of construction on three park routes
opened 76.5 miles of new roadway to the public, namely, the Stevens
Canyon Road, 18.5 miles, in Mount Rainier National Park, the 21-
mile East Side Highway in Grand Teton National Park, and the
Park Road, 37 miles in Everglades National Park. Grading and
base construction on the 20-mile gap on the trans-mountain Tioga
Road in Yosemite National Park was placed under contract. Recon-
struction of the Kings Canyon Route, 8.8 miles serving the Cedar
Grove a.rea and the Copper Creek trailhead was completed.
Parkways construction reached its greatest volume since 1933. A
$16 million contract authorization was provided by the Federal Aid
Highway Act of 1956 and an accelerated program begun in April.
Programed were $6,515,800 for the Blue Ridge Parkway in North
Carolina and Virginia, $1,031,300 for the Foothills Parkway in Ten-
nessee, $3,528,000 for the George Washington Memorial Parkway in
Maryland and Virginia, $4,478,900 for the Natchez Trace Parkway in
Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee, $146,000 for the Rock Creek and
Potomac Parkway in Washington, D. C, and $300,000 for advance
planning. These funds were concentrated to provide additional public
service facilities and to close gaps in parkway construction to permit
continuous travel on the Blue Ridge Parkway between Roanoke, Va.,
and Asheville, N. C, and between Balsam Gap, N. C, and Great
Smoky Mountains National Park; on the Natchez Trace Parkway be-
tween Tupelo, Miss., and Jackson, Miss., and extensions of the George
Washington Memorial Parkway from Spout Run to the Central In-
telligence headquarters at Langley, Va.
On June 30, contracts totaling approximately $29,212,000 were in
process under the Bureau of Public Roads program, including 125
miles of paving, 108 miles of grading and base course, 42 bridges, 29
grade separations, tunnel lining, slope stablization, and guardwalls.
Parkway contracts totaling approximately $4,400,000 on 16 major
projects including 23 miles of grading, 9 bridges and grade separa-
tions, guardwalls, and guardrails were completed.
304 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Advisory service was provided to the State Highway Departments
of Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Missouri, for field studies of
the proposed Great River Road along the Mississippi River.
The building construction program alleviated to some extent criti-
cal shortages of facilities for visitors in the following National Parks
and Monuments: Visitor centers were completed at Flamingo, Ever-
glades; Organ Pipe Cactus, Andrew Johnson, Craters of the Moon,
Chalmette, Dinosaur; Colter Bay, Grand Teton; and Canyon, Yel-
lowstone. Visitor centers are under construction at Abraham Lin-
coln, Hopewell Village; Dickey Ridge, Shenadoah; Pipestone,
Moores Creek, Badlands, Mammoth Cave, Theodore Roosevelt, Bryce
Canyon, Fort Union, Aztec Ruins, Petrified Forest, Saguaro, Rich-
mond Battlefield; Eielson, Mount McKinley; and Grand Teton.
Plans are in preparation for visitor centers at Gettysburg, Wright
Brothers, and Cumberland Gap. The visitor center at Death Valley
is being constructed in collaboration with the State of California
which is sharing the cost and providing museum facilities.
Restoration and rehabilitation of historic buildings included the
home of Andrew Johnson ; the Schuyler House, Saratoga ; structures
at Appomattox Courthouse, Hopewell Village, Chalmette, Fort
Laramie, Independence, and Harpers Ferry.
The recording program of the Historic American Building Survey
was resumed in the 1958 fiscal year after being suspended since the
beginning of World War II. Through the student assistant pro-
gram measured drawings were completed for many historic buildings
in Service custody not previously included in the Survey. Drawings
were finished on partially completed surveys remaining after suspen-
sion of the work in 1941. A supplement to the Catalog of the Meas-
ured Drawings and Photographs of the Historic American Buildings
Survey in the Library of Congress is nearing completion which will
list the surveys received subsequent to its publication in March 1941.
The Service is collaborating with the American Institute of Archi-
tects in its Historic American Buildings Inventory and is contributing
to and participating in research and experimentation with Ohio
State University in recording buildings through photogrammetry, a
process of obtaining measured drawings of building elevations and
interiors from photographs.
The employee housing program during the year provided for 136
new permanent dwelling units and 53 seasonal units. This com-
pares favorably with 101 permanent and 47 seasonal for the preceding
year and 121 permanent and 57 seasonal units programed in 1959.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Other major items constructed were comfort stations in camp-
grounds, utility buildings, and administration buildings. Additional
overnight accommodations, housekeeping cabins, and shelters are un-
der contract at Isle Royale National Park.
The concessioners in Big Bend, Yosemite, Everglades, and other
National Parks are adding facilities to better serve the visitors and
keep up with the Mission 66 program.
Utilities and Miscellaneous Structures
Continued progress in the development, improvement, and aug-
mentation of utilities and miscellaneous structures and facilities is
reflected by the following general statistics :
NEW VISITOR CENTER, DINOSAUR NATIONAL MONUMENT.— This unique
structure built against the side of a cliff in which are entombed fossil bones of
hundreds of dinosaurs, was dedicated as a Mission 66 project in June 1958.
Visitors can view the embedded fossil bones of the prehistoric creatures while
watching scientists at work recovering the remains in the fabulous dinosaur
306 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
There was a net gain of approximately 1450 camp sites in 47 of our
campgrounds, including- newly developed campgrounds and additions
to existing campgrounds. Work was completed on 61 water system
and 43 sewer system projects involving a net increase in available
water storage of about 8,161,000 gallons, all representing a capital
investment of approximately $3,1 10,000 . k
Work completed under the minor road and trail program cost
approximately $1,800,000. It included the completion of approxi-
mately 5.8 miles of new road, 5.9 miles of stage construction on addi-
tional new roads, and reconstruction work on approximately 19.3
miles of old roads. In addition, work was completed on 3.3 miles of
new trails and reconstruction on 13.3 miles of existing trails.
The loan of two LCU's for use as free, State operated ferry boats
at Cape Hatteras National Seashore Recreational Area was nego-
tiated with the Navy along with the loan of an LCVP for adminis-
tration and protection on Fontana Lake in Great Smoky Mountains
National Park. The Corps of Engineers transferred several hun-
dred feet of aluminum bridge sections for urgently needed trail
bridge replacements at Great Smoky Mountains and Shenandoah
Approximately 21 communication systems were converted from
Government to commercial operations and maintenance. A new power
generation and distribution system for the headquarters and Rock
Harbor Lodge areas of Isle Royale National Park was completed and
negotiations were well advanced to bring commercial power and tele-
phone service to Yellowstone National Park.
The 165-foot all steel passenger and freight vessel to serve Isle
Royale National Park was launched on June 21, and a contract
awarded for the deep water dock to serve it at Rock Harbor Lodge
was to be completed during the summer.
The Chief Engineer participated in Operation Alert, 1957 and
1958 under a preplanned decentralized emergency operations organi-
zation coordinated with the departmental program.
Master plans were kept well ahead of construction programs so
that the work could be thoroughly coordinated with other divisions
of the Service. A study was made to assure the close integration
of the Master Plan Development Outlines and the Mission 66 pro-
spectuses. This will greatly facilitate the operation of the construc-
tion and development programs. A total of 290 master plan draw-
ings was approved, and 168 preliminary studies were prepared and
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 307
RECREATION RESOURCE PLANNING
Park System Planning
A long-range National Park System Plan was begun as part of the
Mission 66 program. This plan for the orderly rounding out of an
adequate system of nationally significant areas in appropriate classi-
fications is to be completed by 1961. It will help to chart the way for
selecting and preserving, while still available, outstanding scenic,
scientific, and historic areas so that the Nation's future park needs
may be fulfilled.
New Areas Established
The site of Fort Clatsop, near Astoria, Oreg., winter camp of the
Lewis and Clark Expedition, was authorized to be established as a
national memorial by the act of May 29, 1958. Petrified Forest
National Monument in Arizona was authorized as a national park
by the act of March 28, 1958. The park status becomes effective
when inholdings are acquired.
New Areas Proposed
Legislation pending in Congress would authorize establishment of
national parks on Cape Cod, Mass., and Padre Island, Tex. ; preserva-
tion of an undeveloped stretch of the Indiana dunes on the shore
of Lake Michigan as a national monument ; and transfer of Grant's
Tomb in New York City to Federal ownership as a national me-
morial. Other pending legislation would create a Grand Portage
National Monument in Minnesota. A small tract there is now a na-
tional historic site in non-Federal ownership.
Designation of the old United States Mint building in San Fran-
cisco as a national historic site is being considered by the Secretary.
The General Services Administration has agreed to transfer the build-
ing to the custody of the National Park Service when renovation of
the new Mint building is completed.
Russell Cave in Alabama, rich in evidences of early man, was for-
mally offered by the National Geographic Society as a national mon-
ument. The Society is completing acquisition of the land needed
for such monument purposes.
A full-scale study was made of the possible preservation of Fort
Howie, historic Arizona army post, as a national monument. Preser-
vation of the Kinishba Ruin in Arizona as a national monument was
also studied in preparation for discussions with Apache Tribal Conn-
308 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
cil and Bureau of Indian Affairs representatives. Investigations were
continued to ascertain what grassland areas remain available for
possible preservation as specimens of America's once- vast prairies.
An extensive area of the glacial moraines of Wisconsin has been
suggested as a possible unit of the National Park System, and studies
of it have been authorized.
On November 1, 1957, the Millerton Lake National Recreation Area
was officially transferred to the State of California for administration.
During fiscal year 1958 Congress authorized additions to Whitman
and Fort Frederica National Monuments, a land exchange at Black
Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument, and conveyance to
Tennessee of land at Shiloh National Military Park for highway use.
Small additions to Tumacacori and Fort Vancouver National Monu-
ments were authorized by Presidential proclamation. A major en-
largement of Fort Vancouver has been recommended. Enacted by
Congress and signed July 2, 1958, by the President was a bill designat-
ing new boundaries for Everglades National Park, thus resolving
many long standing boundary problems there.
Bills introduced in Congress during the past fiscal year would pro-
vide administrative sites outside park boundaries at Yosemite and
Mount Rainier National Parks ; authorize a land exchange at Vicks-
burg National Memorial Park, and permit the use of Federal funds
to acquire additions to Antietam National Battlefield Site and Chalm
ette National Historical Park. Other bills would permit the Secre-
tary to procure additional land for Edison Laboratory National
Monument and would transfer two federally owned tracts to Cape
Hatteras National Seashore.
The President has been asked to add two islands to Fort Pulaski
National Monument by proclamation; other proposals would add
lands to Capitol Reef National Monument and adjust boundaries of
Arches National Monument. Material enlargement of Cabrillo Na-
tional Monument is proposed. The National Park Service applied
to the Bureau of Land Management for withdrawal of a site for
Katmai National Monument headquarters.
Advisory and Consultative Assistance
On 447 occasions, State and local agencies in 47 States were fur-
nished assistance on a variety of problems. Of particular significance
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE ♦ 309
was assistance to Arizona, Colorado, and Utah in planning for their
first statewide park systems and to several other States in similar
long-range planning programs. In addition, assistance was given
to the Fish and Wildlife Service in planning for recreation use of
three areas and to three Indian tribes on recreation-area planning
The scope and value of Service assistance was substantially in-
creased by the addition of an experienced Interpretive Specialist to
advise on development and operation of interpretive programs
Park Practice Program
Numerous "bouquet" letters and word-of-mouth commendations
from Federal, State, and local park and recreation authorities indicate
the increasing value of the publications issued under this program.
Over 600 subscribers now receive the three publications issued by the
National Conference on State Parks under this cooperative program,
namely, Design sheets illustrating park and recreation structures,
Guideline sheets dealing with policy, planning, development, and
other aspects of park administration, and Grist, an illustrated bi-
monthly information letter on operation, time and money -saving de-
vices and methods, etc. Additionally, nearly 2,500 copies of Grist are
sent to full subscribers who receive multiple copies and to others who
subscribe only to this publication.
Disposal of Real Property
The Service investigated and reported on 41 applications submitted
by the States and their political subdivisions to General Services Ad-
ministration to acquire a total of 1,996 acres of Federal surplus real
properties for park, recreation, and historical monument purposes.
A total of 172 such properties involving 33,948 acres has been investi-
gated since they first became available in 1948. Enforcement of com-
pliance with the conditions in the deeds for a period of 20 years has
increased each year since 1948, until now the Service has such respon-
sibility on 116 properties involving 24,223 acres. The Service also
reported to the Bureau of Land Management on 38 applications by
State and local agencies to lease or purchase public domain lands for
park and recreation use.
Landscapes of Alaska — Their Geologic Evolution
This handsomely illustrated 146-page book, prepared by staff mem-
bers of the Geological Survey, edited by Howe! Williams, and pub-
310 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
lished by the University of California Press, is the latest of the series
of reports on the Service's Alaska Recreation Survey which was
initiated in 1950 as an integral part of the Department's Alaska pro-
gram. The publication reveals to the lay reader an understanding
and appreciation of the geological evolution and significance of
Alaska's magnificent scenic resources.
State Park Statistics — 1957
This 32-page processed edition reveals 2,216 State parks and re-
lated types of recreation areas embracing over 5 million acres; ex-
penditures of $32 million for lands and capital improvements and
$42 million for operation and maintenance; 6,302 year-round and
9,141 seasonal employees; and more than 216 million attendance,
nearly 15 million of whom were overnight visitors.
Regional and Basin-Wide Recreation Surveys
Major investigations of the recreation potentialities of river basins
were conducted in the Missouri, Delaware, and Columbia Basins, and
in the northwestern California region. The year marked the termi-
nation of a 3-year survey to provide a recreation land-use master plan
for the Department on reclamation withdrawn lands along the Lower
Colorado River, covering about 250 miles from Davis Dam to the
The report on the Missouri River Basin-Wide Recreation Survey
has been accepted by the Inter- Agency Committee and recommended
for publication. The report on recreation resources of northwestern
California was completed and sent to print.
Preparatory to development of long-range recreation resource plan-
ning reports, field work was begun on surveys in Alaska, under con-
tract for a special study, and in Hawaii, through joint investigation
by Service personnel and the Territorial Planning Office in Hawaii.
A contract was signed for a similar survey of the Virgin Islands.
Special studies, made under contract for the Service, included a pilot
study of outdoor recreation activities and preferences of the popula-
tion living in the region of the Delaware River Basin; a study to
determine the trends in extra-urban parks and recreation areas and
their adequacy in serving the recreation habits, needs, and prefer-
ences of persons in large urban areas; and an economic analysis of
recreation in northwestern California.
FIRST HOMESTEAD. — Three young citizens gaze with wonder at the log cabin
on the site of the first homestead claimed on January 1, 1863, minutes after
the Homestead Act. The first homestead is protected by the National Park
Service in Homestead National Monument near Beatrice, Nebr.
Plans were made for an economic impact study, to be cosponsored
oy the Bureau of Reclamation, on recreation values resulting from a
selected group of completed reservoirs in Nebraska. A contract was
signed also for a study of organized camps to provide information
necessary for formulating a program to adequately meet the needs of
hildren aged 9 to 16.
Reservoir Development and Management
Studies continued in the spectacular Glen Canyon Reservoir area.
Preliminary planning reports were prepared on the Navajo and Flam-
ing Gorge units of the Colorado River storage project. Studies at
Flaming Gorge indicated that the recreation phases of this future
reservoir will be of national significance.
The Secretary, on April 21, designated the Service as the agency re-
sponsible for carrying out provisions of Section 8 of the Colorado
River Storage Act, which provides that the Secretary is authorized
md directed to investigate, plan, construct, operate, and maintain pub-
lic recreation facilities on the several reservoirs and participating
312 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Recreation reconnaissance or planning reports were prepared on 15
Bureau projects and 7 reconnaissance reports were prepared for the
Corps of Engineers. Reviews were made of 35 applications for Fed-
eral Power Commission permits or licenses.
The Park Ranger in his forestry green uniform and broad-brimmed
hat is a familiar figure to the millions of people who visit the National
Parks. They know him for his courteous and friendly manner and
his willingness to take a personal interest in seeing that they get full
enjoyment from their visits. No other agency of the Federal Govern-
ment provides such a varied and extensive service, in such a direct,
personal, and face-to-face manner, to so many citizens of our country.
This year approximately 60,000,000 visitors were assisted by the
Park Ranger. In doing his job well he has earned the respect, ad-
miration, and gratitude of his countrymen and is becoming a national
symbol of the best in Government service.
In addition to protecting and providing services to an ever-increas-
ing number of visitor's, Park Rangers achieved a high degree of suc-
cess in protecting and regulating the use of National Parks and their
forests, wildlife, and many other important scenic and scientific
features. Intensive study is being devoted to ways of strengthening
the ranger staff, to permit them to cope with a growing, and already
The establishment of a Division of Ranger Activities in the Wash-
ington Office during this year, as a part of the Mission 66 Program,
was an event of outstanding significance to the Service and particu-
larly to Park Rangers. For the first time this large group of em-
ployees, and the many important functions for which they are respon-
sible, has been given status as a division in the Service organization.
This new Division has a Branch of Park Forest and Wildlife Protec-
tion and a Branch of Visitor Protection. Its implementation in each
of the Service's Regional Offices will be accomplished as soon as funds
Also of unusual importance was the development, approval, and
application of a new set of Civil Service Classifications Specifica-
tions for Park Ranger positions. This action resulted in the upgrad-
ing of approximately 80 percent of these positions.
Water related activities are surging ahead in visitor popularity to
compound enjoyment for many and to also compound Service re-
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 313
sponsibilities for safety and the conservation of a natural resource
delicately balanced in an atmosphere yielding to both serenity and
the sports diversions. A boating committee with wide representa-
tion is presently developing policy and regulatory recommendations
in line with prime objectives.
There is a trend toward an extended annual period of general Park
use. People are, except under conditions of climatic extremes 3 taking
advantage of improved roads, transportation, year-long accommoda-
tions, longer and less seasonal vacations to explore the out-of-doors.
Recreation in the snow and the beauty of winter landscapes are be-
coming more attractive to increasing numbers and the Parks are
thereby serving a fuller purpose.
A total of 19,191 persons, representing 1,154 parties or groups, par-
ticipated in recorded mountaineering activities in 10 of the Parks and
Monuments drawing the special attention of those interested in this
form of relaxation. This compares with 18,049 registered mountain
climbers last year.
There were 3 fatalities and 13 serious injuries. Park Rangers ef-
fected 20 rescue and evacuation operations of major proportions.
Training and equipment stores were expanded and improved.
An expanding interest in camping was shown by the recorded in-
crease of 15.6 percent from 3,633,000 camper days in 1956 to 4,201,000
in 1957. Field studies have been undertaken to establish uniform
methods for collecting travel statistics and more closely relating visitor
use to the requirements of staffing and physical improvements.
White Pine Blister Rust Control
Work in 14 areas has progressed for control of white pine blister
rust on 376,239 acres to the extent that the ribes (wild currants and
gooseberries), the alternate hosts of the disease, have been initially
removed from 91 percent of the control area. Seventy-seven percent
of the control area is now on a maintenance status which means that
only periodic workings are required to keep the areas "ribes free."
Forest Fire Control
Forest fire prevention and control activities were unusually suc-
cessful, for not in the past 25 years have so few man-caused fires been
314 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
fought. However, camper-caused fires were more numerous than
during any previous year, but still a small number considering the
record visitation to the parks. Fires caused by lightning almost
equaled the annual average for the past 30 years. A large fire in
Everglades National Park, which spread over a large acreage of grass-
land, was primarily the reason the total burned area exceeded the
30-year average. Despite this fire, the forest land damaged was only
36 percent of the annual average.
Grazing by Domestic Livestock
The grazing by domestic livestock under permit within the western
national parks and monuments is continuing with little change. The
ultimate goal of eliminating this nonconforming use will not be at-
tained for a number of years because of the tenure of the permittees.
However, an accelerated fencing program has reduced some trespass
grazing and is eliminating grazing in areas having high park values.
An example of the latter is the cactus forest at Saguaro National
Forest Pest Control
For the past several years a Southern pine beetle epidemic has
been a serious problem in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Reduction of the beetle population has been difficult because of
aggressive attacks by 5 and 6 generations per year. Through con-
certed action and other factors control now has been established.
Maintenance control projects for a number of pests have kept vege-
tation losses to a minimum. The persistent attacks of the Black
Hills bark beetle have required several seasons of cooperative effort
by personnel of Bryce Canyon National Park and the Dixie National
Forest to place the status of this pest on a maintenance basis. Also
the spruce budworm control project in Yellowstone National Park
appears to have been successful.
Research to determine means of control of forest pests, both patho-
logical and entomological, has usually been devoted primarily to pests
whose host trees have commercial values. Knowledge to control a
number of pests of noncommercial species which have high scenic
or recreational values in the parks has been lacking because of this
emphasis. Recognition by the entomologists and pathologists of this
situation is now evidenced by several pilot test control projects on
pests that are seriously damaging park values such as the lodgepole
pine needleminer in Yosemite and the pinyon pine scale at Grand
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 315
Wildlife and Fish Management
Biological activities relating to wildlife and fish have been sepa-
rated into research and management. The Division of Ranger Ac-
tivities is responsible for management programs.
The large elk herd of northern Yellowstone continues to be a
pressing problem. The mild winter caused the reduction program
to fall short of the required number to bring the herd within the
carrying capacity of the range.
The management program for the Teton elk herd continued to
receive field study.
NATIONAL CAPITAL PARKS
Upon the completion of the first year under the new reorganization,
many of the recommendations of the 1957 Survey Report on National
Capital Parks have been effected, including the establishment of the
position of Advance Planner in the Superintendent's office.
Public Use and Interpretation
More than 15 million persons by actual count participated in pub-
lic use activities in the parks, which included 6 million visitors to
the major national memorials, an attendance of 3 million persons
at 233 special events, and the participation of 1,093,149 persons in
the interpretive programs conducted by park naturalists and his-
torians. An additional estimated 15 million persons actively used
public park facilities — tennis, swimming, etc. — not covered by actual
count, and an estimated 30 million persons engaged in various forms
of less strenuous recreation in the parks. The Custis-Lee Mansion
Museum was formally dedicated and opened to the public on June
The United States Park Police continued protective services help-
ing to keep the parks relatively free from serious crime. Some 2,827
courtesy traffic warnings were issued in line with the courtesy pro-
gram for out-of-town visitors. Cooperative services with the Train-
ing Division of the International Association of Chiefs of Police,
the International Cooperation Administration, and with the Inter-
national Education Exchange Service of the Department of State
316 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Contracts for 18 major projects included the construction of two
bridges; the reconstruction of Beach Drive in Rock Creek Park,
restoration of the Old Stone House, floodlighting the Washington
Monument, and completion of 4 recreation structures. Other proj-
ects near completion or under way include the floodlighting of the
United States Marine Corps War Memorial, riding stables in Rock
Creek Park and the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, and develop-
ment of Belle Haven picnic area. Progress continued on the George
Washington Memorial Parkway upstream from Key Bridge in Vir-
ginia and Maryland. Seventeen park reservations were rehabilitated
by landscape treatment and installation of concrete curbing, benches
and stone walks. Landscape work involved the planting of 1,166
trees and -1,657 shrubs. Some 2,751 new trees and 8,219 shrubs were
placed in the park nursery ; some 26,970 plants were propagated and
54,600 budding plants were set out in park displays.
Scientific Research and Planning
Research projects in agronomy were undertaken by the Plant
Pathologist's office. Master plans were developed for Fort Wash-
ington and Greenbelt Parks. Development plans are now in prepara-
tion for the Water Sports Outer, the Rock Creek Nature Center, the
Washington Monument Plaza, and parking areas in Rock Creek Park.
DIVISION OF AUDITS
Major reports completed during the year by the Division of Audits
cover the following Service and concession operations: Division of
Administration, National Capital Parks; Bandelier National Monu-
ment; Best's Studio, Inc., Yosemite National Park; Cape Hatteras
National Seashore Recreational Area; Chickamauga- Chattanooga
National Military Park; Degnan, Donohoe, Inc., Yosemite National
Park ; Everglades National Park ; Fort Pulaski National Monument ;
Fort Union National Monument; Mrs. Evelyn Frey, Bandelier Na-
tional Monument; Great Smoky Mountains National Park; Harris
Pictures, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument; Evelyn Hill,
Inc., Statue of Liberty National Monument; Jefferson National Ex-
pansion Memorial National Historic Site; Arthur F. and Marion J.
Lange, Grand Teton National Park; S. G. Loeffler Company, Na-
tional Capital Parks ; Morristown National Historical Park ; Natchez
Trace Parkway; Olympic Hot Springs Company, Olympic National
Park; Olympic National Park; Rainier National Park Company,
Mount Rainier National Park ; and Yosemite National Park.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 317
The audit program is designed to provide an objective evaluation of
Inancial management and other operations on a systematic and re-
curring basis. Many recommendations were made and accepted for
mprovement of controls over the use and safeguarding of assets, im-
Drovement of accounting records and supporting data to make them
nore useful to management, and recommendations concerning adher-
snce to financial and operating policies, plans, and procedures. Find-
ngs of the audits of concession operations continue to show a need for
mproved internal controls and accounting records to provide the
Service with accurate information for the administration of rates
•barged by concessioners and negotiation of franchise fees.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1959 O — 498491
of the DIRECTOR
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Reprinted from the
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY
OF THE INTERIOR — FRED A. SEATON
For the Fiscal Tear Ended June 30, 1959
UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
APR 25 I960
National Park Service
Conrad L. Wirth, Director
* • •
N JUNE 30, 1959, the Mission 66 program of the Department of
e Interior's National Park Service was poised to push forward
to the fourth year of its 10-year program to assure the development
id protection of the National Parks, Monument and Historic Sites
>r the enjoyment and inspiration of future generations.
As fiscal 1959 ended, the National Park System was in the best
ndition in its history. Almost everywhere throughout the De-
triment's 181 park areas, improvements promised when the pro-
ram was launched in 1956 were becoming visible.
Yet, even as the new improvements came into being and as park
affs were increased, it became clear that even more strenuous
forts must be made in the coming years to keep abreast of the ever-
sing tide of visitors.
In the first 6 months of 1959 visitation to the parks was 8.5 per-
ent above the total for the same period in 1958, and it was estimated
hat visitation for the 1959 calendar year would approximate 62,-
00,000 or 6.2 percent more visitors than were recorded in the pre-
The challenge confronting the Service now is to push its Mission
16 program forward with all possible vigor and speed to meet the
steadily rising demands of the people for enjoyable and educational
ise of the National Park System.
When Mission 66 was launched on July 1, 1956, it was planned
;hat orderly progress, year-by-year, would find the National Park
System properly staffed and equipped to care for 80,000,000 visitors
m 1966 — the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Service.
Bold and forward looking as original Mission 66 planning was,
it already has become apparent that it is insufficient to meet the un-
expectedly swift increase in demands being made upon the Park
System. Already it is evident that more than 80,000,000 people will
324 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOl
visit the parks in 1966 and plans must be made now to provide tin
facilities and the staffs to accommodate them. A restudy of tin
original Mission 66 program is under way.
The intensive use made during the past year of new facilities anc
services attested to the soundness of the plans for development, man
agement and protection of the parks under Mission 66. New visitoi
center buildings, roads, trails, campgrounds, and other facilities wen
scheduled to open for public use during calendar year 1959, anc
many contracts have been let for further construction.
During the past fiscal year, 710 projects involving an investment ol
$59,083,000 were either placed under construction or committed fo:
construction, and an additional 708 projects worth $36,616,000 were*
completed. Since Mission 66 was launched, 1,946 construction proj-
ects involving an investment of $96,459,000 have been completed.
While construction projects may have provided visitors with dra
matic examples of Mission 66 progress, much was accomplished "be-
hind the scenes" to better protect the wilderness and the wildlife anc
the priceless historic buildings and treasures that have been entrusted
to the care of the Department of the Interior.
During the year, 218 new permanent employees were hired to man
age, protect, and maintain the parks. Total staffing under Missior
66, has increased almost 10 percent from about 7,200 permanent anc
seasonal employees on June 30, 1956, to neary 8,000 on June 30, 1959
Thirteen new visitor centers have been placed in operation anc
20 others were under construction this year.
With the completion of the final stages of the Jamestown Tom
Road in Colonial National Historical Park, the Heart O' the Hills
Road in Olympic National Park, and the entrance road at Arches
National Monument, a total of 20 miles of new park routes wer<
opened to the public.
Outstanding among the major roads projects placed under con
tract during the year were : The Thornton Gap Interchange and ap
proaches at Shenandoah National Park; reconstruction of Unioi
Avenue at Vicksburg National Military Park; the entrance at Mess
Verde National Park, paving of the Lassen Peak Highway at Lasser
Volcanic National Park, reconstruction of the South Entrance Roac
at Zion National Park, reconstruction on the Jackson Lake Road ai
Grand Teton National Park and the construction of grade separa
tions on 14th Street and the Mall in the District of Columbia.
The National Parkways program also continued at a high rat<
of construction and concentrated on closing gaps of Parkway con
struction and providing additional visitor facilities along the com
pleted sections. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1958 provided f
$16 million authorization which was programed for the Blue Ridge
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 325
arkway in North Carolina and Virginia; Foothills Parkway in
'ennessee; George Washington Memorial Parkway in Virginia and
Maryland; Natchez Trace Parkway in Alabama, Mississippi and
ennessee; and Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway in Washington,
The National Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission
as established in June 1958, by the 85th Congress to conduct a
ationwide survey of the outdoor recreation resources of the nation
nd to develop recommendations for such policies and programs that
ill assure adequate quantity and quality of outdoor recreation op-
jortunities to meet the nation's increased future population needs.
An earlier recreational study program, started by the National
ark Service in 1936, to plan for the establishment of outdoor recrea-
ion areas by all levels of Government — Federal, State, and local —
nd accelerated under the Mission 66 program — is now tied in closely
ith the National Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commis-
In the field of planning and surveys excellent progress w T as made
uring the year. Under the long-range National Park System plan,
special staffs in the Regional Offices continued taking inventory of
scenic and scientific resources that have primary value for park and
■ecreation purposes. Analysis of the inventory will ultimately
establish what areas possess nationally significant values and merits
! or possible status as units of the National Park System.
Nationwide recreation planning was concentrated on the inventory
)f existing recreation areas and the forecasting of future needs.
A±>out 85 percent of the inventory and evaluation of areas admin-
stered by State and local agencies was completed.
Looking into the future, to the years 1975 and 2000, good starts
were made in determining the needs for park and recreation areas
for those years and the potential areas with outstanding recreation
resources which would fill the future needs of the National Park
During the fiscal year, 24 laws directly affecting the National Park
Service were enacted by Congress. An outside-the-park adminis-
trative site for Yosemite National Park, was authorized at El Portal,
Calif., and a suitable boundary for Everglades National Park in
Florida was fixed. Authority was granted to develop and complete
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial at St. Louis, Mo., according
to approved plans. Grand Portage National Monument in Minne-
sota was authorized, and the General Grant National Monument in
New York City was officially established. The Minute Man National
Historic Site in Massachusetts was established by Secretarial Order.
An Executive Order establishing Horseshoe Bend National Military
326 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOI
Park in Alabama was signed by the President on August 11, shortly
after the close of the fiscal year.
The Department proposed legislation, later introduced, to preserve
certain shoreline areas. If enacted, it would establish the basic
principle that it is in the national interest to set aside significan
portions of shore areas for this and future generations. The pro
posal would authorize Federal preservation of three shoreline areas
possessing national significance. The Secretary of the Interioi
would have the authority to designate such areas.
Other pending legislation would authorize Bent's Old Fort
Colorado, Fort Bowie and the Hubbell Trading Post, both ir
Arizona, to be established as national historic sites; the preservatior
of Arkansas Post in Arkansas as a unit of the System ; establishmenl
of the Minute Man National Historical Park, Mass.; and establish
ment of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
The Department endorsed those proposals and, in addition, askec
that Dinosaur National Monument be given the status of a Nationa 1
Park, and recommended legislation to provide an adequate basis foi
administration of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. At the
fiscal year's end the Department was giving sympathetic considera-
tion to a recommendation that a 147,000-acre area in the Snake
Range of Eastern Nevada, to include Wheeler Peak and Lehman
Caves National Monument, be sought for establishment as a National
River Basin and Regional Studies
Investigations continued on the recreation potentialities of the
Columbia River Basin and the Delaware River Basin. The report
on findings of the Missouri River Basin -Wide Recreation Survey
was submitted. The report on recreation resources of northwestern
California was delivered to the Pacific Southwest Field Committee
Special assistance was provided to Hawaii on an inventory of exist-
ing and potential recreation areas. Draft reports were prepared on
the recreation potential of Alaska, and assistance was given to Utah
and Colorado in the formulation of plans for new State park systems.
Started in 1956, Mission 66, in a sense, came of age in 1959. Such
a continuous, long-range program requires many preparatory steps,
Development of improved roads and parking areas under Mission 66
s none too soon as shown by this throng of visitors at Yellowstone
,nd must build up gradually. During the initial stage, much more
nergy and money are applied than can be extracted as immediate
By the end of 1959, however, with many programs and projects
tarted in earlier years coming to maturity, the use benefits of Mis-
ion 66 assumed a dominant position. Mission 66 is now in good bal-
ance, and the effort and funds being invested in new projects and
programs are equalled or exceeded by the benefits resulting from
he completion of facilities and the maturing of programs that
tarted in earlier years.
It is very important that the program maintain this equilibrium
p it progresses throughout the remaining 7 years of Mission 66, not
>nly for reasons of economy and efficiency, but to keep pace with the
lemands of increasing park travel as well.
Mission 66 cannot be considered apart from the full National Park
Service program — they are the same. The accomplishments of Mis-
ion 66 are the accomplishments of the Service, and are detailed in
)ther sections of this report.
The following highlights are cited both to illustrate the nature
)f the program and to demonstrate the advantage of long-range
planning when provided with the support necessary to keep the
ob going on full schedule.
539468 O -60 -2
328 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOI
Lands were acquired and plans decided which will result in th<
removal of many administrative, operating, and employee housing
structures from congested Yosemite Valley, and their relocation a
El Portal, Calif., just outside the boundary of Yosemite Nationa
The basic development of Mather Village in Grand Canyon Na
tional Park, Arizona, was completed, and some of the facilities
placed in use. This development will accomplish the expansion am
decentralization of public use developments, and eventually effec
the restoration of the natural scene on the rim proper, much as has
been done at Canyon Village in Yellowstone National Park, Wyom
Wilderness research projects, in cooperation with universities anc
specialists, were started in the Rocky Mountain and Sierra parks, t(
assemble knowledge supporting more effective preservation of na
tural and wilderness values.
The completion of new visitor use facilities in Everglades Nationa
Park, Florida, stimulated the resolution, after many years of nego
tiation, of boundary and land problems in this park.
The flexibility of the Mission 66 program was demonstrated a
camp-ground development was stepped up in response to the ver*
rapid increase in camping evident in the last 2 years.
Interpretation and presentation programs were greatly strength-
ened as 13 new visitor centers were placed in operation.
For the first time, Isle Eoyale National Park, in Michigan, be-
came adequately accessible with the launching of the 96-passengei
motor craft, the Ranger III.
With all activities moving forward and showing results, the Mis-
sion 66 staff work focused upon the internal functions of the Service,
seeking ways to achieve more efficient operation, effective use of
manpower, better and more rapid planning procedures, improved
competence in personnel, and greater economy. In these fields, four
items are especially worthy of mention:
1. Two attractive, full-color bulletins were produced, designed to
invite into government service men of highest competence and qual-
ity. The first pertains to the uniformed field force — rangers,
naturalists, historians, and archeologists. The second is addressed
to the professions of landscape architecture, architecture, and en-
2. Prospectuses were prepared proposing the establishment of the
National Park Service training school at a permanent location and
in permanent facilities. The recruitment of highest quality per-
sonnel, and the maintenance of the highest degree of competence,
are basic to good public service.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 329
3. In order to reduce the disparity between parks to a more com-
prehensible and manageable basis, to provide a greater degree of
jonsistency, uniformity, and economy of operation, and to permit
nore specific delineation of responsibilities and relationships, the
ireas administered by the Service were classified in five management
roups. The organizational pattern designed for each group is
consistent with the needs of the parks comprising each group, and
vith relationships with the Regional Offices.
4. A study of planning and management procedures resulted in
| new format, new content, and new procedures for preparing Master
-•lans, and the scheduling of Master Plan revision for all parks over
he next 3-year period. The new Master Plan will not only con-
olidate into one document several separate planning instruments,
rat will provide a sounder basis for development planning, extend
he Master Plan concept into the management field, and streamline
)rocedures for preparation and approval of this basic instrument
)f park administration.
The interpretive program of the National Park Service provides
m educational service on a national scale. In the 1958 calendar
rear, more than 58 million people visited the 181 scenic, scientific,
listorical and archeological and recreational areas included in the
National Park System.
Visitors want to appreciate and understand what they see and ask
mestions that must be answered accurately and completely. To
tnswer the questions of park visitors concerning geology, natural
listory, history, and archeology of the parks is the assignment of
he interpretive program of the Service.
Park visitors find inspiration at Jamestown, on the Oregon Trail
lear Fort Laramie, or on the great battlefields of the Revolution
nd the Civil War. The Grand Canyon, the beautiful mountains
ind streams, or a wilderness area in the National Parks, gradually
omes to symbolize the nation in their minds, so that the type of
:nowledge gained from the interpretive program of the parks pro-
motes patriotism and good citizenship. The nature and scope of
the Interpretive Program has been greatly improved and accelerated
under Mission 66.
Service to the Public
To enable the visiting public to get the most out of their visits
to the parks through understanding and appreciation, the Interpre-
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOl
Park historians add to the understanding and enjoyment of park visitor
through talks and tours.
tive Program provides Visitor Centers for orientation, for infor
mation, and other conveniences which the visitor needs in visiting
a park or historical area.
The Visitor Center usually includes a museum or exhibit spac
in which the story of the area can be told in an interesting an<
attractive manner. These are not museums in the regular sense bu
they display valuable specimens related to the park story and the
technique of presentation is that of the museum.
Collectively these park museums, and the collections at those tha
have special collections, constitute one of the largest and mos
important museum systems in the Nation. In Independence Nationa
Historical Park, Phila., for instance, the Service has in its custody
the Nation's largest collection of portraits of the founding father;
of the United States. The Jamestown Visitor Center in Virginia ha!
an enviable collection of early 17th century objects relating to ou:
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 331
In addition to the Visitor Centers and museums, the Interpretive
Program provides expert guide service, self -guiding trails, trailside
exhibits, and automatic or visitor-operated audiovisual aids and
devices. To make history and natural history live and to make
science intriguing is also an objective of the Interpretive Program.
The number of visitors utilizing interpretive services during the
calendar year 1958 increased over the preceding year's total at a
rate 69 percent greater than the rate of increase in total park visita-
tion. While the count of visitors participating in conducted trips
or hearing interpretive talks by naturalists and historians remained
just under 10 million, the significant advance in 1958 was in the
use of self -guiding devices. Additional self -guiding facilities avail-
able in 1958 raised the total of estimated contacts through this
medium to over 30 million, a gain of 20 percent. Visitor centers and
other attended stations recorded a gain to a total of 20.5 million
Visitor Centers built so far under Mission 66 have proved their
value in terms of increased enjoyment and appreciation of the parks.
Visitors have found these multi-purpose buildings convenient, effi-
cient places for learning quickly what to see and do during their
stay in a park. During this fiscal year 13 new Visitor Centers
were completed and opened to the public, and 20 more were under
Among the new Visitor Centers are two that marked important
anniversaries. The one at Abraham Lincoln National Historical
Park, Ky., was built 150 years after Lincoln's birth. Exhibits there
tell of his father and mother and their frontier life.
The Visitor Center at Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial
Park, N. Dak., was completed during the centennial year of his
birth. It orients people to the widely scattered features of the park
and tells of the significant influence Roosevelt's experiences as a
rancher in the Badlands had on his life and work.
Other Visitor Centers opened for the public were Moores Creek,
Organ Pipe Cactus, Pipestone, Richmond, Yellowstone Canyon,
Chaco Canyon, Fort Union, Hopewell, Carlsbad, Peaks of Otter,
Cumberland Gap, and Colter Bay (Grand Teton).
An important byproduct of intensive work on museum records
was more precise information about the historic and scientific col-
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOI
lections being preserved in the parks. There are over 2,300,00(
specimens, most of them carefully selected for their value in under
standing and interpreting the parks and the national historical areas
Plans were developed for a critical review of the contents of all pari
collections to increase their value and use.
Park collections continued to receive generous donations. At th<
Spanish Embassy in Washington, D.C. on October 11, 1958, th<
Minister of the Army of Spain presented to Under Secretary o
the Interior Elmer F. Bennett, a series of early Spanish arms fo
use at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument in St. Augustine
Mr. William H. Robinson, Jr. of Gloucester, Mass., presented t(
the National Park Service a bronze Spanish mortar and bed o
about 1780. It will be mounted at Castillo de San Marcos.
The staff of museum preservation specialists applied skillfu
treatment to rare and valuable specimens for 28 parks. Their worl
included preservation of the foundation timbers of the flag pol
from which the Star Spangled Banner fleAv during the bombard
ment of Fort McHenry in 1814. They also restored the celebrate*
Thomas Moran paintings of the Grand Canyon and Yellowston
in the Secretary's conference room, as well as important portrait
New Visitor Centers, such as shown at Cumberland Gap National His
torical Park, are an integral part of Mission 66, and offer greate
park understanding and appreciation through orientation exhibits
museum displays, information and other visitor facilities.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 333
rom the Independence Hall collection and from Morristown Na-
ional Historical Park, N.J.
The Eastern and Western Museum Laboratories worked at full
apacity and supplemented their efforts by contracts with exhibit
>uilders, so great was the demand for exhibit preparation.
iudio-V isual Planning and Installations
Distinct progress in the audiovisual field was made during fiscal
ear 1959 by the Audio- Visual Laboratory. Outstanding were in-
tallations of visitor-activated repetitive motion picture projectors
t Dinosaur and Craters of the Moon; the installation of four im-
proved visitor-activated cabinet projectors elsewhere; development of
battery-operated message repeater for remotely located audio sta-
ions, and complete audiovisual installations in assembly rooms of
major visitor centers providing both automatic and manual
Zoadside and Trailside Interpretation
In 1959, the development of many new roadside and trailside in-
srpretive facilities strengthened the Interpretative Program. These
ssist visitors who like to guide themselves, especially in heavily
isited areas where the demand for guidance exceeds the park staff.
New interpretive markers were installed on the Jackson Hole
lighway, Grand Teton National Park, Cades Cove and Smokemont
rails, Great Smoky Mountains National Park; Arches National
lonument, Beaver Dam, and the Natchez Trace Parkway.
Archeological excavations within areas administered by the Na-
ional Park Service were carried out in Chaco Canyon, at Monte-
uma Well, and at Tuzigoot. A survey of the north rim mesa in
Valnut Canyon was completed and the Southern Illinois University
urveyed the area south of Frijoles Canyon in Bandelier as part of
long-term research program centering on the Pueblo of Cochiti.
Reports on excavations at Petrified Forest and El Morro are being
>repared and an analysis of survey collections from Organ Pipe
Cactus National Monument is now underway.
Archeological research in relation to construction projects was
arried on at Badlands, George Washington Carver, Fort Laramie,
larpers Ferry, Independence, Fort Union and Fort McHenry.
Work at Fort Frederica was completed during the year. An im-
portant project involving studies in ecology, soil analysis, palynology
Wayside exhibits, such as this one of the Battle of Moore's Creek in Nort
Carolina, aid young and old in understanding the significance of ou
and geochronology as well as archeology was begun at Wetheri
Mesa in Mesa Verde under the cosponsorship of the Service an
the National Geographic Society.
The extensive salvage archeology program conducted by the Nj
tional Park Service through financial cooperation with other Fee
eral agencies and State and local institutions is being continued
the Missouri River Basin where several Smithsonian Institutio
crews were in the field. In the Upper Colorado River project tr
University of Utah, the Museum of Northern Arizona and tl
Museum of New Mexico cooperated with the Service in survey an
excavation work in the Glen Canyon and Navajo Reservoirs.
Several projects are under way in Texas through cooperation wit
the University of Texas, such as the Diablo and Cooper Reservoir
Work continued in the Dalles and John Day Reservoirs in Was!
ington and Oregon, whole excavations were carried on at Hartwe
in Georgia, Walter F. George in Alabama, and numerous small are*
in the eastern United States.
In natural history, geological research is continuing in cooperatio
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 335
ith the Department's Geological Survey in several areas involving
laciology and geological mapping. Additional glacier studies are
eing conducted at Olympic and Glacier Bay as part of the Inter-
ational Geophysical Year program in cooperation with the Ameri-
an Geological Institute. Other cooperative research in progress
icludes geological studies at Cape Hatteras and Virgin Islands, and
tratographic mapping at Badlands. The Service also is continuing
he hydrothermal studies at Yellowstone initiated last year.
The Service initiated biological research on bighorn sheep at Death
alley and Dinosaur, and cooperative studies on the elk in Jackson
lole, Wyo. Research was begun on the wolves and moose of Isle
toyale in cooperation with Purdue University; and grizzly bear
tudies at Mount McKinley, carried forward by the University of
Llaska. Studies on the fragile alpine environments at Sequoia,
iocky Mountain, and Grand Teton continued. Marine fishery re-
earch progressed at Everglades and Virgin Islands, and the Depart-
lent's Fish and Wildlife Service continued work on trout at
ellowstone, Rocky Mountain, Shenandoah, and Great Smoky
Historical and architectural research on the Assembly Room of
ndependence Hall, Congress Hall, and Old City Hall and at
larpers Ferry continued. Historical research at Fort McHenry
ras brought to a conclusion with many fruitful results.
Important historical research was undertaken on Booker T. Wash-
Qgton and George W. Carver. A major study of the history of the
ite of Federal Hall, first Capitol of the United States, was
Sational Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings
The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, reactivated
mder Mission 66, continued to show good progress. The following
tudies were completed: (1) Theme IV, Spanish Exploration and
Settlement; (2) Spanish Colonial Sites in the Panama Canal Zone;
3) Theme V, French Exploration and Settlement; (4) Theme XI,
Advance of the Frontier, 1763-1830; (5) A Special Study of the
^ewis and Clark Expedition; and special studies of other phases
>f our Westward Expansion, namely (6) The Santa Fe Trail, (7)
Hie Hubbell Trading Post, and (8) The Mining Frontier.
Special emphasis was given to utilizing the knowledge gained from
vildlife research in the interpretive programs of the parks. In-
539468 O -60 -3
336 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO
creased attention was given to the interpretation of fishes in the
natural habitats. The fascinating marine life in the waters of Vi
gin Islands was featured.
Other examples showing the wide variety of opportunities afford*
in this field by the National Park System are the wolves of Is
Eoyale, the desert bighorn sheep of Death Valley, and the gn
whales which migrate in view of thousands of visitors at Cabril
National Monument in California. The expanding research pr
gram on biological resources promises to provide a great wealth (
information for public education and enjoyment as well as fac
needed for the conservation of these important resources.
The National Park Service — with its almost 60 million visito
seeking instruction in outdoor laboratory courses in history, geolog
natural history and archeology — must have an adequate staff n
only to give answers directly or to conduct guided trips, but
plan the museum story and trailside exhibits. In 1958, the interpr
tive professional staff numbered about 120 historians, 95 naturalist
and 37 archeologists. To cope with the increased responsibilities <
the interpretive program under Mission 66, 12 new permane:
naturalist positions were established during the year; 12 new hi
torians and 7 new archeologists were employed.
Archeology, which since 1935 had been incorporated within
Branch of History, was established as a separate Branch of Arch
ology. The staff of the Museum Branch was increased by three.
Memorial Commission Activities
The National Park Service serves as the fiscal and cooperatii
agency for the Civil War Centennial Commission, Lincoln Sesqr
centennial Commission, Boston National Historic Sites Commissio
and the Hudson-Champlain Celebration Commission. '
The Civil War Centennial Commission with headquarters at 7(
Jackson Place, Washington, D.C., held its annual meeting Api
15-16 in Richmond, Va. The Executive Director and Chairim
met frequently with State commissions in planning for the cente:
nial observances. The National Park Service collaborated with tl
Commission in producing a film on "Planning for the Centennial i
the Civil War."
The Abraham Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, schedule
to function until March 1, 1960, sponsored or cooperated in mai
observances including a joint session of the Congress on Februai
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 337
12, when Carl Sandburg was principal speaker, a redesign of the
Lincoln Penny, and an issue of four special stamps. Its secondary
school program will reach 97 percent of the high schools in the
United States, public, private, and parochial. It also has an active
college program. Lincoln Day -by -Day, a four- volume work on his
activities, is in the process of preparation for publication.
The Boston Historic Sites Commission completed a major portion
of its studies on the preservation and interpretation of Colonial and
Kevolutionary historic sites in Boston and vicinity by the issuance
of the Lexington-Concord Battle Road Report, published as House
Document No. 58, 86th Congress. The final report of the Commis-
sion covering sites in Boston proper will be completed in 1960.
The Hudson-Champlain Celebration Commission, with headquar-
ters in Federal Hall, New York City, was established by act of
Congress, August 8, 1958. The Chairman has a commission of 21
members who have sponsored or will sponsor appropriate ob-
servances in New York, New Jersey, Vermont, and Canada, through-
out the spring, summer, and fall months.
Information and Publications
Growing public interest in the great recreational, educational and
patriotic assets contained within the National Park System was
reflected throughout the year by mounting requests for informational
publications and factual reports..
Although some 12,000,000 free informational publications were
produced and about 500,000 were sold by the Government Printing
Office, demand exceeded supply.
The thirst for knowledge about the National Parks, Monuments
and historic areas was worldwide. During the year requests were
received from citizens of 58 foreign countries for National Park
Service informational publications.
Although the great bulk of park publications are distributed in
the parks themselves, some 55,000 mail inquiries for park informa-
tion were received in the Washington office.
Handbooks on the historical significance and natural history of
park areas and reports on the scientific findings of researchers sup-
plemented the free informational program. Two new handbooks —
Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, and Chalmette Na-
tional Historical Park — were added to the handbook series during
the year. A revised edition of the Saratoga National Historical
Park handbook was issued and a handbook on tree bracing was re-
vised and reissued.
338 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Through many press releases, the public was kept informed of the
progress of Mission 66 and other park matters of national interest.
Individual assistance was provided to magazines, newspapers, radio
and television stations, and motion picture companies in the prep-
aration of materials concerning the parks.
Division of Ranger Activities
Throughout the past year, the Park Rangers successfully met
their dual responsibility of serving as friend and protector to mil-
lions of visitors and as protector of the parks and the scenic, scien-
tific, and historic values they contain. Their work cannot be
performed within the schedule of an 8-hour day or 40-hour week
and Park Rangers continued to work many additional hours com-
pensated for only through the satisfaction that comes from serving
and helping others. Public recognition and appreciation of their
efforts was evidenced by the large number of complimentary letters
that were received by the Service from visitors whom they had
The new Division of Ranger Activities in the Washington Office
completed its first full year of operation. Good progress was made
in the development of much needed policies and policy guidelines
covering important activities of Park Rangers. These included
policy statements on law enforcement and mountain climbing.
A joint conference of Chief Rangers and Interpreters was held
in Washington, D.C., during March. This is the first such confer-
ence ever held that included the participation of every Chief Ranger
in the Service. It provided an excellent opportunity to study and
discuss the full scope of Ranger Activities as they are found
throughout the entire National Park Service.
Of growing concern to Rangers in the larger, more heavily used
parks, is the proportion of their available time now required to
conduct protection and visitor service activities in the developed
areas and along park roads. This situation has resulted in too little
time left to regulate and control the increasing public use of the
back country and to protect park values found there.
During the year a task force of field employees was called to
Washington where they studied Service uniform regulations, made
recommendations for revisions needed to effect a higher degree of
standardization, better appearance, and prepared a handbook out-
lining how the uniform should be worn and maintained.
The National Park Service Training Center at Yosemite National
Park completed its second year of highly successful operation.
The awe-inspiring majesty of nature draws millions of Americans to our
340 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
During the year, the Arno B. Cameron and Newton B. Drury Ses-
sions were held which provided 51 young men in their first year of
employment with Service orientation and indoctrination together
with some training in work techniques and skills. A young forester
from Turkey, sent to this country by his Government to study na-
tional parks and forestry, attended the fall session of the training
The upward trend in park attendance was cyclically interrupted
in calendar 1958 when total visits declined 1 percent to 58,677,000
from 1957 ? s 59,285,000. Resumption of the upward curve was clearly
evident during the second half of fiscal year 1959.
The collection of travel statistics and the analysis of public use
has been reoriented toward measurement of park workload and
determination of development priorities, staffing requirements, de-
sign-load estimates, and need for services.
The National Parks in the mountains of the West, and in Alaska,
draw upon the hardy spirit of about 20,000 visitors annually who
seek out the rugged summits for physical accomplishment.
Search, rescue, or evacuation missions were incident to five fatali-
ties and 20 other accidents with potentially serious consequences.
The 3,600 foot face of El Capitan in Yosemite National Park was
climbed by a group of expert mountaineers on November 12 after
about 45 days of effort .expended at various times from a start made
in July 1957.
On July 2, two parties made the first successful ascents of Mount
McKinley National Park, Alaska, since 1954.
The full force of power boating is felt on park waters and the
need has arisen to study closely this popular form of use to deter-
mine the degree of protection and control necessary to conserve the
water-related resources and prevent injuries or deaths.
The Everglades, Hawaii, and Virgin Islands offer respite from
the cold in warm waters under tropic skies. Rainier, Yosemite,
lany national parks offer spectacular views and are centers for water
ctivities including boating, fishing, and water skiing.
)lympic, or Rocky Mountain with a cover of snow and frosty
tightness bring opportunities for family participation in and
ppreciation for outdoor activities and scenic splendor. Yearlong
q these parks and in Great Smoky Mountains, Hatteras, Blue Ridge,
r Sequoia people by increasing numbers are finding inspiration and
In 1958, camping pursued its strong upward movement. It rose
.1 percent from 4,201,000 camper days in 1957 to 4,665,000 in 1958.
Campgrounds have been burdened beyond capacities, but this appro-
mate and beneficial experience in the parks brings enjoyment to
nany that could be provided in no other way. Small travel trailers
tre growing in camper preference over tents.
Wildlife and Fish Management
This was the first full year that management responsibilities in
wildlife conservation has been a function of the Division of Ranger
Activities. To consider questions in management biology, 59 Wild-
ife Rangers were designated by the Superintendents, and more
than a dozen reports on fish and wildlife management have been
342 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TNTERIO
received. With assistance from cooperating agencies, wildlife re
ductions were made at Glacier, Mammoth Cave, Yellowstone, Gran
Canyon, and Rocky Mountain.
Fish were planted in 13 areas, and in an attempt to reestablisl
bighorn sheep, five were released at Theodore Roosevelt Nationa
Each year for the past several years there has been a light de
crease in open-range use by domestic livestock in the western nationa
parks and monuments. This trend continued in 1958. The elimi
nation of this land use will not be realized until the distant futun
because of the life tenure of many of the permittees. However
Below: A striking example of Mission 66 activities in improving th(
parks for the enjoyment and inspiration of this and future generations.
This picture shows the falls in Yosemite Valley marred by an unsightly
old building. Opposite page: The building has been removed, allowing
for an unobstructed natural view of the spectacular falls.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
nd applied in and near the public use area at Bandelier appears
o have been unusually successful. Mountain pine beetle control
has been continued at Yosemite National Park in conjunction
the intensive research program of the Department of Agricul-
brest Service under way there to develop a successful *• *
e needleminer now attacking over 50,000
342 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOl
received. With assistance from cooperating agencies, wildlife re
ductions were made at Glacier, Mammoth Cave, Yellowstone, Granc
Canyon, and Rocky Mountain.
Fish were planted in 13 areas, and in an attempt to reestab 1 '
i<stc .„ n snee p 5 fi ve W ere released at Theodore Roosevelt NV
The Serv?Jl rk - i most
successful one. Tfcfc entered
park boundaries were beio>, .ge of 339,
and the 1958 burn of 3,770 acres .. ^ v year reported
during the previous 10 years.
The 1958 record of 209 lightning-caused fires and 124 man-caused
fires is significant for usually fires caused by man's carelessness ex-
ceed those started by lightning. Approximately 3,000 men devoted
more than 91,000 hours on fire suppression activities.
White Pine Blister Rust Control
Initial eradication of ribes (wild currants and gooseberries), the
alternate host of the disease, has been completed on 94 percent of
the 375,404 acres included in control units. Eight-one percent of
the control area in 14 areas administered by the National Park
Service now only require infrequent workings in order to maintain
a "ribes free" or maintenance status.
Recreation Resource Planning
Special staffs in the Regional Offices are taking inventory of scenic
and scientific resources that have primary value for park and recre-
ation purposes. Preliminary analysis of the data is being made to
identify areas that possess nationally significant values and merit
consideration for possible status as units of the National Park Sys-
ter. Based upon the initial inventory and evaluation, plans are
being drawn for comprehensive investigations of desirable and suit-
Forest Pest Control
Forest insect and disease conditions were generally less severe in
the parks and monuments this year and maintenance control projects
were successful in keeping losses from most pests at a minimum.
The most destructive outbreaks were the continuing Southwestern
pine beetle infestation at Bandelier National Monument and the
mountain pine beetle attack associated with the lodgepole needle-
miner infestation at Yosemite National Park. Spraying developed
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 345
ind applied in and near the public use area at Bandelier appears
o have been unusually successful. Mountain pine beetle control
ork has been continued at Yosemite National Park in conjunction
rith the intensive research program of the Department of Agricul-
ure's Forest Service under way there to develop a successful control
or lodgepole needleminer now attacking over 50,000 acres within
Sew Areas Established
In accordance with authorizing legislation, the General Grant
fTational Memorial, N. Y., was officially established by acceptance
>n May 1, 1959, of the deeds transferring the property from the
Srrant Monument Association to the United States.
The 8-acre Minute Man National Historic Site, Mass. was estab-
ished by Secretarial order on April 14, 1959. Deeds to lands donated
or Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, Ala., were accepted by
he United States, and an Executive order establishing the Park was
igned early in fiscal 1960.
The possibility of preserving a representative portion of the tall
rrass or true prairie in Pottawatomie County, Kans., as a unit of
he National Park System is being considered by the Department.
This proposal culminates several years of study by the National
ark Service of remaining portions of the tall grass prairie. Simi-
ar studies are in progress to determine what possibilities remain to
^reserve examples of the important short grass or mixed prairie.
Definitive studies of the national park potentialities of the Snake
Jange in eastern Nevada were completed and are being considered
)y the Department.
During fiscal year 1959, the 85th Congress authorized boundary
djustments which included additions of lands at Cape Hatteras
National Seashore Recreational Area, Cowpens National Battlefield
pte, Gloria Dei Church National Historic Site, Independence Na-
ional Historical Park, and Isle Royale and Yosemite National
*arks; a small deletion of lands at Sequoia National Park; and
>oth additions and deletions at Everglades and Kings Canyon Na-
ional Parks. Legislation was also enacted which authorized bound-
iry changes at Vicksburg National Historical Park, Hot Springs
National Park, Natchez Trace Parkway, and Death Valley National
Monument. Additions to Cabrillo, Capitol Reef and Fort Pulaski
Sational Monuments and Independence National Historical Park
rere accomplished by Presidential proclamations.
346 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOI
Bills introduced in the 86th Congress would authorize boundary
adjustments at Independence National Historical Park; Fort Donel
son and Kings Mountain National Military Parks; DeSoto anc
Wright Brothers National Memorials; Devils Tower, Dinosaur
Edison Laboratory, Fort Vancouver, and Montezuma Castle Na
tional Monuments; San Juan National Historic Site; and Moun
Rainier and Zion National Parks. Another bill would permit us<
of Federal funds to acquire lands at Antietam National Battlefielc
Officials of the McGraw-Edison Co. have offered to donate Glen
mont, the home of Thomas A. Edison in West Orange, N. J., t<
the United States for preservation with the Edison Laboratory
established as a National Monument in 1956. Negotiations are iiot
under way looking toward inclusion of the Edison Home in th
Advisory and Consultative Assistance
Forty-six States, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were furnished assist
ance on 426 occasions on a wide variety of problems. Of specia
significance is the assistance furnished by the Interpretive Specialis
who was assigned to the branch in the spring of 1958. He has
provided interpretive planning assistance in 12 States on 20 oc
casions, including major projects currently underway in Georgia
Maryland, Michigan, South Carolina, West Virginia, and in Breaks
Interstate Park in Kentucky and Virginia. Additionally, he has
surveyed interpretive programs in 95 State and local areas in 21
States. There is evidence that State and local park authorities ar<
becoming increasingly interested in interpretation.
Cooperation was extended to the National Conference on Stat<
Parks in a study which was published by the Conference under thi
title Revenue Bonds for State Park and Recreation Area Develop
ment — Report on Their Use and Features. This 26-page repor
with 77 pages of appendices discusses the advantages and disad
vantages of this method of financing and gives an account of th<
programs in 12 States.
Real Property Disposal
Thirty-three Federal surplus properties totaling 2,095 acres wer<
recommended to General Services Administration for conveyance
to the States and their political subdivisions for park, recreation
and historic monument purposes. The Service now has responsibility
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 347
! or enforcing compliance with the conditions of the deeds on a
otal of 145 properties involving 24,383 acres.
Recommendations were furnished to the Department's Bureau of
Land Management on 54 applications from State and local agencies
o acquire public-domain lands for park and recreation purposes.
7 ark Practice Program
The program of exchanging park administration practice and
deas continues to grow. Every State now participates and many
nunicipal, county, and regional park authorities, as well as private
>ark and recreation organizations, colleges and universities, and a
lumber of foreign nations are contributing ideas and participating.
Municipal and other agencies now comprise more than 40 percent
)f participant membership ; foreign participation has doubled during
he past year. Total membership in the full program now exceeds
50, an increase of 25 percent.
Much of the material presented through the three publications
»f the program — Design, Guideline, and Grist — are being quoted
n other publications and are being used as training materials in
miversities offering courses in park administration.
\tate Park Statistics
The 1958 edition of this annual publication produced in fiscal
.959 shows that there are 2,335 State parks and related types of
•ecreation areas embracing 5.4 million acres; that attendance ex-
ceeded 237 million, including 17 million overnight visitors; that
he States spent $47 million for operation and maintenance and
£26 million for capital improvements; and that they employed
>,691 year-round and 9,982 seasonal employees. Perhaps the most
significant revelation is the use by 13 million campers, an increase
)f 24 percent.
Nationwide Recreation Planning
The work on nationwide planning for nonurban recreation re-
ources was concentrated on the inventory of existing recreation
ireas and the forecasting of future needs. Inventory and evaluation
)f areas administered by State and local agencies Avas about 85
percent completed. Work is underway to determine the quantita-
tive requirements for parks and recreation areas for the years
L975 and 2000 and to inventory potential areas having outstanding
Thundering surf at Acadia National Park, Maine, brings welcome relie
and relaxation from the tensions of present day city life.
The Pacific Coast Recreation Area Survey was published. Dis
tribution of the report aroused considerable interest.
Field studies were completed on the Great Lakes Shoreline Survey
River Basin and Regional Studies
Investigations continued on the recreation potentialities of th
Columbia River Basin, in cooperation with the Recreation Sur.
committee of the Columbia Basin Inter- Agency Committee, and th
Delaware River Basin, where draft reports were being prepare
on portions of the States in the Basin, in cooperation with Stat
agencies. The report on the Missouri River Basin-Wide Recreatio
Survey was printed, and the report on recreation resources c
northwestern California was delivered to the Pacific Southwes
Field Committee for distribution.
Special assistance was provided to Hawaii on an inventory o
existing and potential recreation areas, and preparation of a pla
for ? system of parks; draft reports were prepared on the recres
tion potential of Alaska; and assistance was given to Utah an
Colorado in the formulation of plans for new State park systems
Reservoir Development and Management
Work carried on under the provisions of section 8 of the Colorad
River Storage Act included installing an acting superintendent fc
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area project, opening a tem-
porary project office at the Wahweap public use development site,
preparing preliminary master plans for two major public access
points at the future Flaming Gorge Reservoir and for the Navajo
Reservoir area, and undertaking negotiations for administration
of recreation resources of the Navajo Reservoir.
Recreation reports prepared included general development plans
for 14 reservoir projects, reconnaissance or planning reports for 5
projects, annual field review of 36 reservoir recreation areas, and
special studies of recreation use of 2 reservoir recreation areas,
Management agreements were negotiated for operation and mainte-
nance of 10 reservoir recreation areas.
Special studies being made under contract for the Service in-
cluded (1) a study to provide information on present and future
needs for organized camping facilities to provide camping oppor-
tunities for children and young people and (2) the initial stages
of a study for evaluation of the economic and sociological effects
of recreation use of three reservoirs in the Missouri River Basin.
Plans were made for nationwide sample interviewing for contract
survey work on the extent of interest in nonurban outdoor recrea-
tion generally and in types of activities requiring publicly owned
recreation space and facilities in order to help measure long-term
demand for public parks and recreation areas and the types of
outdoor-experiences that are sought.
For the third consecutive year under Mission 66, the Service's
financial position was strengthened in 1959 through appropriation
increases. There follows a comparison of the 1959 appropriations
with those for 1958:
Management and Protection
Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Physical Facilities
General Administrative Expenses
Construction (Liquidation of Contract Authorization)
Total Cash Appropriations
Construction (Amount by which Roads and Trails and Park'
ways Contract Authorization exceeds or is less than cash ap
Total New Obligational Authority
$14, 527, 094
11, 663, 786
1, 390, 650
17, 400, 000
75, 981, 530
+15, 765, 500
91, 747, 030
$16, 056, 200
12, 477, 100
1, 429, 300
20, 000, 000
SO, 000, 000
79, 962, 600
67, 197, 100
+$1, 529, 106
+2, 600, 000
+3, 981, 070
-28, 531, 000
-24, 549, 930
350 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
The net decrease in new obligational authority was brought about
by the advancement of 1959 fiscal year contract authorization for
roads and trails and parkways construction totaling $14,765,500
for obligation during the latter part of 1958. This advance enabled
the Service to get a significant portion of its 1959 roads and trails
and parkways programs under way prior to commencement of the
fiscal year. Disregarding this adjustment, new obligational author-
ity for the 1958 fiscal year totaled $76,981,530 and for 1959 it totaled
$81,962,600, making a total increase of $4,981,070.
Improvement in Financial Management
Progress in the prosecution of the Service's plan for improvement
in financial management continued throughout the year. The most
significant achievement in this connection was the implementation
of the plan and procedures for placing all of the Service's fixed
assets under accounting control. This project, which includes in-
ventorying and estimating the cost of all fixed assets acquired or
developed prior to 1956, when the new accounting system was in-
stalled, was progressing at the close of the fiscal year and will be
completed in 1960. Also at the close of the fiscal year, the Accounting
Handbook was complete in draft form and ready for final review.
The volume and complexity of personnel work continued the
steady rate of increase that has been evident since the inception of
Mission 66. To meet the demands of efficient and effective opera-
tion with comparatively little increase in staff, further delegation of
personnel management authority to field officials was found necessary
and feasible. Increased delegation of authority to Regional Direc-
tors and the Superintendent of National Capital Parks was effected,
together with decentralization of personnel folders. This raised
the delegated authority to the field from GS-11 to GS-13, with the
exception of Superintendent positions. This also permitted a re-
organization in the Branch of Personnel, resulting in a strengthened
Employee Relations staff responsible for functions previously per-
formed by two sections and in the streamlining of operations in
the Appointments and Records Unit.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 351
Merit Promotion Program
The Service's promotion program was revised to meet the require-
ments of the Civil Service Commission's and Department's new
Merit Promotion Program.
Director Wirth was one of 10 recipients of the Career Service
Award for 1959 presented by the National Civil Service League
in Washington, D.C.
The Service's recommendation of a Conservation Service Award
for Dr. and Mrs. Harold S. Colt on of the Museum of Northern
Arizona was approved by the Secretary.
There was increased activity in the suggestion and superior per-
formance phases of the Incentive Awards Program.
The Mission 66 Staff and the Branch of Personnel developed two
attractive recruitment brochures, one for the uniformed services
and the other for the design professions.
Classification and Wage Matters
Revised classification standards covering park naturalist positions
were developed and approved by the Civil Service Commission.
Necessary position classifications were completed in connection
with the establishment of the new Branch of Archeology.
A significant development in wage administration was the enact-
ment of Public Law 85-872, which requires that wage rate increases
be made effective within certain time limits after a wage survey is
ordered. The new Supervisory Pay Plan, which was released by the
Office of the Secretary in August 1958, was installed.
As a part of the Service's Management Development Program, two
Management Development Seminars for National Park Service
managerial personnel were conducted during the past year.
The Branch helped arrange and conduct the Twentieth General
Administration Training Course, held at the Region One Office in
Richmond, Va., in March 1959, for selected employees regarded as
352 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
having potential for growth and development in administration.
The Nineteenth General Administration Training Course was held
in the Region Four Office in San Francisco, Calif, in October 1958.
Property and Records Management
Handbooks were prepared on contracting and procurement, and
property management, and will soon be distributed to the field.
Substantial progress continues in establishing adequate records and
inventories of museum specimens. A Quarters Subsistence and
Services Handbook was produced and distributed. At Yellowstone
National Park an experiment is being tried in operating a self-
service storehouse for perishable foodstuffs with a view to increasing
efficiency and economy. If successful, the system will be extended to
additional items and other parks.
It was a progressive year in paperwork management. The Rec-
ords Management Section participated in Records Management
Workshop conferences conducted by the Department. A Directives
Management Handbook was written establishing an integrated direc-
tives system. A Forms Management Handbook was written extend-
ing the forms program to the field. A listing of all Bureau forms,
with reference to the directive for each form, was published, resulting
in the elimination of 51 forms. Two workshops, Form Improvement
and Records Disposition, are being given Servicewide. Handbooks
being written at the year's end include Correspondence Procedure
Reports Management; Files Management; and Records Scheduling
The Branch of Safety is making every effort to further organize
and develop a more effective safety program to cover not only
National Park Service employees and operations but visitors, con-
cessioners' and contractors' employees and operations.
Visitor- Accident Fatalities
The visitor-accident fatality rate was reduced 16.3 percent. This
is the third year in succession in which the fatality rate has been
Park views leave unforgettable memories to millions of visitors.
mder one per million visitors. In 1958 there were 36 visitor
atalities which resulted in a ratio of 0.61 per million visitors, the
owest rate in the 12 years that such reports have been compiled.
Df the 36 fatalities, 17 were drownings and 12 resulted from motor
Thirty-nine persons were reported having been bitten or scratched
?y bears during the 1958 season. This compared with 91 reported
or the 1957 season, 109 in 1956, and 76 in 1955. Bears were responsi-
ve for 117 property damages during 1958 as compared to 126 in
L957, 106 in 1956, and 112 in 1955.
Motor Boat Activities
As a result of the Federal Boating Act of 1958, safety codes as
ipplicable to motor boat operations in parks are being developed.
Also, in cooperation with the Coast Guard Auxiliary, safety instruc-
ion courses are being set up in parks where motor boating is a
354 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO
Practically all of the areas administered by the National Par
Service either have active safety committees or someone of the sta
designated to handle safety program activities. The Region Thrt
Office organized and conducted the first Bureau safety seminar
Grand Canyon National Park, with excellent results. The firs
meeting of the National Park Safety Planning Committee submitte
recommendations for improving the Service's safety program.
The year was marked by continued progress in providing add
tional public accommodations and improved services in the part
and by substantial gains in acquiring lands needed for park purpose
In addition, programming methods and procedures have been in
proved and the increased maintenance responsibilities resulting froi
facilities provided under Mission 66 are necessitating a "new look
at maintenance practices and techniques. It is believed that th
results achieved will contribute materially to making the Nations
Park System more enjoyable for the increasing number of visitoi
Public Works Planning
Meetings of the Departmental Public Works Planning Committe
were attended to discuss methods of initiating and administerin
a public works program in event of a National Emergency,
developed that the Service could contribute by producing a prograr
of park projects within a thirty day period based on the Missio
66 Control Schedules. A program of projects which could be starte
within a twelve month period was prepared based on these schedule
and on information received from the field. This program wa
submitted to the Committee.
Mission 66 Control Schedules
The Mission 66 Control Schedules for park developments wer
revised to reflect the addition of new areas, additional facilitie
needed to accommodate an estimated additional 10 million visitor
during the Mission 66 period, and increased costs since the last sub
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 355
idvance Development Programs
To further facilitate the crystallization of ideas on the numerous
letails connected with development it Avas decided to prepare detailed
nnual programs for an additional year beyond the budget year,
or a total of 3 years instead of 2. These data provide the basis
or orderly sequence of development; for detailed studies of indi-
vidual projects; for obtaining survey data and for the preparation
f preliminary plans. Each of these annual programs is tentative
vhen first compiled, becomes progressively firmer as studies develop
nd is well established when due for submission with the annual
Maintenance and operational responsibilities of park staffs con-
inue to increase at a rapid pace as additional facilities are com-
leted under the construction phase of Mission 66. The increase is
lot only in numbers but more significantly is caused by the added
complexity of the problems, particularly in respect to buildings and
itilities which incorporate in their design many new materials and
quipment requiring a wide variety of new maintenance practices,
)rocedures and techniques.
^ew cottages for the use of park visitors are constantly being added to the
>ark System by private industry under Mission 66.
356 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO]
The season in many parks has been materially extended by keepin
the roads open later in the fall and opening them earlier in th
spring. In other parks additional roads are being kept open on
year-round basis. Operational efficiency in snow removal has bee
further improved by the acquisition of modern equipment.
Sixteen concession contracts were negotiated. These included con
struction programs for Shenandoah, Yosemite El Portal administra
tive site, and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, representin
investments totaling about $2.75 million dollars. Highlights in thi
field were the conclusion of contracts with the District of Columbi
Armory Board for the construction and operation of a stadium oi
the East Capital Street site, and the Virginia Sky-Line Co., Inc
providing for a $2-million improvement program at Shenandoa
Nine prospectuses were issued soliciting offers for the operatio
of facilities at Lake Mead, Mount Rainer, Hot Springs, Canyo
de Chelly, Rocky Mountain, and Great Smoky Mountains. Authori
zations have been negotiated as a result of the prospectus for Grea
Smoky Mountains and Glacier Basin saddle livery at Rocky Moui
tain, and offers have resulted from the Lake Mead and Mouri
The Yosemite Park & Curry Co.'s new Village Store, restauran
and other structures, costing about $800,000 were dedicated on May
and the new warehouse and utilities buildings were completed at
cost of about $700,000. Degnan, Donohoe, Inc., also completed it
new restaurant and delicatessen at an approximate cost of $750,00(
Completion of these structures allowed removal of the Old Villag
building complex and restoration of the area to its natural conditioi
In addition, concessioner improvement programs were completed a
Big Bend, Crater Lake, Bryce Canyon, Everglades, Glacier, Gran
Canyon, Grand Teton, Hot Springs, Mammoth Cave, Mount M(
Kinley, Sequoia, Shenandoah, and Yellowstone National Parks
Black Canyon of the Gunnison, Cayon de Chelly, Death Valley, an
Petrified Forest National Monuments; Blue Ridge Parkway; Cap
Hatteras National Seashore: Lake Mead National Recreation Area
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 357
and National Capital Parks, with investments totaling approxi-
Other Concession Activities
Because of widespread opposition to the plan to remove concession
facilities from the East Side of Kocky Mountain National Park, a
study was made resulting in recommendations, approved by the As-
sistant Secretary, that certain facilities be retained.
A committee consisting of representatives from each Regional
Dffice, and a concessioner and park employee from each Region, has
been established to study the Service souvenir policy.
An arrangement was completed with the Eastern National Park
ind Monument Association for the operation of the Jamestown
Glasshouse interpretive exhibit through a joint cooperative agree-
During the year $2,400,000 was made available for land acquisition,
rf which $900,000 was donated. Some 78,816.98 acres of inholdings
vere acquired by purchase, donation, transfer or exchange.
Donations of land included: 4,000 acres from the State of North
arolina for Cape Hatteras National Seashore; 2,040 acres from the
State of Alabama and the Alabama Power Co. to comprise the
lorseshoe Bend National Military Park, Ala. ; and the Grant's Tomb
ite of 0.76 acres from the city of New York and the Tomb struc-
ure from the Grant Monument Association to comprise the General
jrant National Memorial, established on May 1, 1959.
The Minute Man National Historic Site, designated as such by
Secretarial order, April 14, 1959, comprises 8.08 acres of U.S. land
ransferred from the Laurence G. Hanscom Air Force Base.
Completed purchases and approved options cover some 7,155
cres in Glacier, Grand Teton, Lassen Volcanic, Rocky Mountain,
/irgin Islands, and Yosemite National Parks; Badlands, Effigy
lounds, Joshua Tree, Muir Woods, Petrified Forest, and Whitman
National Monuments; Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and Shiloh Na-
ional Military Parks, Independence National Historical Park ; Cape
latteras National Seashore; and Theodore Roosevelt National
At Everglades National Park, the United States conveyed 51,000
cres of land and water to the State of Florida and received in
xchange 100,741 acres, a net addition of 49,741 acres of land.
358 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Water Resources and Water Rights
Two regional units were established, thus giving four of the five
regional offices basic water resources and water rights organizations
for operation under delegated authority. The Department's Geologi-
cal Survey investigated water resources in 16 parks and monuments
to find ground water supplies or define water rights. Three similar
investigations were made under contracts. Two parcels of land were
purchased with wells or well sites, and 70 exploratory and test
wells were drilled. Two water rights were licensed, approximately
25 extensions of time in which to make proof were obtained, and
public hearings were held on two water right cases. Surveys anc
analyses were continued to obtain water right data for appropriative
Design and Construction
In fiscal 1959, $43,682,832 were available for the construction pro-
grams of the National Park Service, including carry-over balances
from fiscal 1958. By June 30, 85.8 percent of these funds had beer
obligated, and four hundred twenty-one individual construction con
tracts were awarded. A large number of day-labor projects also were
completed. To help offset the shortage of design office personnel,
number of contracts for professional architectural and engineering
services were consummated.
Roads and Trails
Major road projects completed during the fiscal year amounted t<
117 miles of reconstruction or new construction at a cost of $8,151,000
Projects totaling $5,852,560 were started during the year and ai
additional $8,635,000 was obligated prior to the start of the fisca
year under advance contract authorization. This $14,487,560 fo
new projects added to the $5,008,000 of previous years projects whicl
are approaching completion gives a total of work under constructioi
Completion of the final stages on three park routes — the James
town Tour Road of 4.6 .miles in Colonial National Historical Park
the Heart O 'Hills Eoad of 6 miles in Olympic National Park anc
the 9.2 mile entrance road at Arches National Monument — opened 2<
miles of new roadway to the public. Reconstruction projects cover
ing 227 miles of roadway and bridges were also completed.
The major projects placed under contract during the year were
Construction of the Thornton Gap Interchange and approaches a
Shenandoah National Park ; reconstruction of 1.679 miles of Unioi
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 359
>LE ASE DO NOT ENTER
THIS CAMPGROUND IS NOW OCCUPIED
THIS CA»K« „ ADJkrrrv - ADDITION*.
W»LL OVERTAX SAN.TARV™
'he ever-increasing number of visitors often taxes campgrounds beyond
leir capacity. The "No Vacancy" sign directs campers to other sites in
le area where they may pitch their tents. Mission 66 is designed to
ileviate congestion caused by years of earlier park neglect.
.venue at Vicksburg National Military Park; 6.5 miles of the
ntrance Road at Mesa Verde National Park, 13.7 miles of paving
m the Lassen Peak Highway at Lassen Volcanic National Park;
5 miles of reconstruction on the South Entrance Road at Zion
ational Park; 4,198 miles of reconstruction on the Jackson Lake
oad at Grand Teton National Park ; and the construction of grade
jparations on 14th Street and the Mall in the National Capital
arks in Washington, D.C.
Minor roads and trails projects totaling approximately $4,500,000
ere started. A few of the larger projects under contract for con-
duction are the Bodie Island Entrance Road at Cape Hatteras
ational Seashore Recreational Area, amounting to $377,179; a
rade separation, structure and connecting roads, amounting to
393,275, at Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, a parking
rea for the new Visitor Center, in the amount of $155,668 and the
'our Loop Road amounting to $260,690 at Saratoga National
During fiscal 1959, approximately 120 projects were under contract
l minor roads and trails. An additional 5,300 vehicle parking
)aces were gained during the year.
The 1959 fiscal year again saw the National Parkways program
mtinue at a high rate of construction on the Blue Ridge, Natchez
360 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO
Trace, Foothills and George Washington Memorial Parkways. Tr
work was concentrated on closing gaps of Parkway construction an
to provide additional visitor facilities along the completed section
A $16 million contract authorization was provided by the Federa
Aid Highway Act of 1958, of which $6,264,600 was programed to tr.
Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina and Virginia; $1,000,000 fc
Foothills Parkway in Tennessee; $2,858,600 for George Washingto
Memorial Parkway in Virginia and Maryland; $5,260,300 fc
Natchez Trace Parkway in Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee
$216,500 for Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway in the District
Columbia and $400,000 for advance planning.
The third year of Mission 66 also saw the largest number
project completions of major work since the National Parkways pr
gram was initiated in 1933. This represented 33 individual maj<
projects with a total value of approximately $15,000,000 including
miles of paving, 59 miles of repaving, 39 miles of grading and ba
course, 31 bridges and grade separations, tunnel lining and extei
sions, slope stabilization and guardwalls.
Two outstanding projects completed included an 11 -mile section
the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina extending southeastwai
from Wolf Laurel Gap through the Cherokee Indian Reservatic
into Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which marks the sout
ern entrance to the Parkway, and a 4-mile section of the northboui
lane of the Gatlinburg Spur along the west side of the West For
Little Pigeon River of the Foothills Parkway.
Completion under the minor roads, buildings and utilities Par
way program included the Peaks of Otter, Va., information cent
on the Blue Ridge Parkway, numerous public service features on t
Blue Ridge and Natchez Trace Parkways such as additional pier
ground facilities, campground roads, trails, comfort stations, maint
nance buildings and utility systems and several employee resident
As of June 30, 45 major contracts totaling approximate
$24,800,000 were in process under the Bureau of Public Roads pi
gram, including 68 miles of paving, 97 miles of grading and ba
course, 52 bridges and grade separations, and other work.
Under the authority of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 19
field studies were carried out jointly by the Bureau of Public Roa
and National Park Service in Louisiana on the location of the Gre
River Road. Thus far, nine of the ten Mississippi River Stat
have been furnished advisory services.
The building construction program continued with emphasis
providing visitor facilities in the National Parks and Monumen
~; f r*
here is no finer recreational and educational activity than camping in
Le great outdoors. Mission 66 is adding new camping grounds to the
ational Park System.
isitor Centers, important to interpretation of the parks, were
mpleted or were under construction at Abraham Lincoln, Hopewell
illage, Pipestone, Moores Creek, Badlands, Mammoth Cave, Theo-
>re Roosevelt, Bryce Canyon, Moose, Grand Teton; Fort Union,
on, Cumberland Gap, George Washington Carver, Wright
rothers, Parachute Key, Everglades; Death Valley, and Great
naoky Mountains. Plans are nearing completion for Visitor
enters and administration buildings at Gettysburg, Fort Donelson,
id Mound City Group.
The progress in the restoration of historic buildings is best ex-
iplified in the Independence National Historical Park where
Hall, in Carpenters Court, has been reconstructed and the
erchants Exchange Building, one of the historic buildings desig-
ned to be restored and retained, has been rehabilitated to provide
Eices for Region Five and the Eastern Office, Division of Design
id Construction. The last major demolition contract for removing
mhistoric buildings has been awarded with completion scheduled
r late this fall.
Emergency measures were taken to protect Congress Hall in
[dependence Square from threatened collapse following damages
stained in the heavy snows of the previous year.
A total of 406 miscellaneous buildings were rehabilitated or con-
tacted at a cost of $9,700,000.
362 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOI
The housing situation in parks and monuments was further im-
proved by the provision of 107 permanent and 75 seasonal units
programed during the 1959 fiscal year.
An agreement was reached with the city of St. Louis and th<
Terminal Eailroad for the relocation of the elevated railroad tracks
between the Memorial and the Mississippi River levee at Jeffersor
National Expansion Memorial in St. Louis and a contract wa
awarded in the amount of $2,421,000 for this work. The develop
ment cost for this project is shared by the city of St. Louis an<
other contributed funds in the ratio of $1 of non-Federal for eacl
$3 of Federal funds. The present schedule of construction is predi
cated upon completion of the entire project, estimated to tota
$22,500,000, in time for the proposed sesquicentennial celebratio:
New impetus was given to the Historic American Buildings Sui
vey in its second year of resumed recording activity. A unit wa
established in the Western Office, Division of Design and Construe
tion, in San Francisco, and in collaboration with the Universit
of California produced measured drawings and photo-data boo'
of a number of historically important structures in California. Thi
unit will continue during the present year with the assistance of
supervisor and a student measuring team.
A supplement to the Catalog of the Measured Drawings and Phote
graphs in the Library of Congress, listing and describing materh
added to the collection since March 1, 1941, was compiled an
published. The Specifications for the Measurement and Recordin
of Historic American Buildings and Structural Remains was r
vised and distributed.
The Building Construction Handbook was completed, printed an
distributed to the field. This handbook prescribes regulations go
erning the planning, location, construction, alteration, repair, movir
and demolition of buildings in the National Park System.
Utilities and Miscellaneous Structures
The Service is continuing the progress of improving utilities ar
miscellaneous structures as reflected in the following general st
There were approximately 677 additional campsites in 25 cam
grounds, this included newly developed campgrounds and additio
to existing ones. There were 90 water systems and 76 sewage s}
terns completed. These projects increase water storage faciliti
by 3,400,000 gallons, all representing a capital investment of a
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 363
Emphasis is continuing on the preparation of Master Plan draw-
ngs on a schedule which will assure thorough studies of develop-
nent needs in relation to current and future management require-
nents well in advance of the establishment of firm programs. Over
00 preliminary and final Master Plan drawings were prepared.
An important step was taken toward the integration of the Mis-
ion 66 Prospectus and other planning documents into the Master
Ian. In its new format, the Master Plan will become a more effec-
ive instrument in establishing and defining the broad objectives,
policies, and requirements for all elements of the park program.
Office of Audits
Of major importance during the year was a comprehensive study
)f the Service's audit policies and practices which was conducted by
Departmental committee. Following recommendations of this
ommittee, the audit scope has been changed to place primary
mphasis on accounting and financial matters rather than manage-
nent aspects. Other recommendations dealt with improving the
"ffectiveness of report distribution and taking follow-up action by
idministrative officials. < *
During the year more than 40 reports were issued, eliminating a
mcklog on hand at the year's start. To comply with the survey
ecommendations will entail a 2 to 3-year audit cycle. Experience
inder the new program shows an urgent need for additional auditors
o achieve this goal. •
National Capital Parks
An Employee Relations and Training Officer was hired in August
1958. Training courses for maintenance, United States Park Police
md, history section personnel were conducted. There was created
n November 1958 a Board of United States Civil Service Examiners
:o hold competitive examinations for positions peculiar to this .office.
. * r ' ■ ..- ■■■
Visitor Services ^
Intensive use of the parks continue^ creating heavy demands on
personnel and park facilities. An estimated 45 million perspns
used the facilities and services provided by the National Capital
Parks; more than 5 million visitors were counted at the five
364 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO
national memorials; there were 267 special events attended by ove
2 million persons; park naturalists and historians served approx
mately 300,000 people, and nearly 6 million listened to interprets
recordings or participated in self -guided tours.
Criminal complaints handled by the United States Park Polic
increased about 8.5 percent and noncriminal complaints were u
nearly 25 percent over fiscal year 1958. Some 1,500 traffic warnin
tickets were issued and there were upwards of 25,000 arrests an
citations involving adults. In the Semi-annual Firearms Qualifica
tion Program, 99 percent of the Force qualified for medal awards
The recently announced Promotion Competition Program was re
ceived with enthusiasm and steps have been taken to put it into effed
Some 200 plans relating to developments were prepared an<
nearly $4 million were expended on about 60 contracts. Much tim
was spent in Analyzing highway plans of other agencies, e.g. ap
proaches to Jrotomac bridges, the /Inner Loop and the Glover
Archbold Parkway, and in preparing proposals to minimize thei
impact on the parks. Horticultural activities included planting o
thousands of trees and shrubs, salvaging of top soil, and improving
neighborhood parks. Major construction included two stables, sev
eral bridges, road realinement and paving in Rock Creek Park
reroofing of Linc&ln Memorial ; rehabilitation of the Washingtoi
Monument elevator; repairs and stabilization at Fort Washington
Custis-Lee Mansion and the Old Stone House: and extension o:
the George Washington Memorial Parkway.
Research and planning
Contracts have been let for the construction of the Rock Creel
Xature Center, for continuance of grading and surfacing of portion;
of the George Washington Memorial Parkway in Maryland anc
Virginia, and structures at Prince William Forest and Catoctii
Mountain Parks. Historical research has been conducted at For
Washington, Custis-Lee Mansion, House Where Lincoln Died, anc
the Old Stone House. Studies were made on a land acquisitioi
problem at Great Falls and for extension of the George Washingtoi
Memorial Parkway to Woodlawn and beyond. Development plan;
are under way for a mechanical maintenance shop headquarters, anc
a park operations building.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1960 O -539468
of the DIRECTOR
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Reprinted from the
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY
OF THE INTERIOR— FRED A. SEATON
For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1960
National Park Service
bnrad L. Wirth, Director
'HE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1960, was a notable one for the
■tonal Park Service. An exceptional record of accomplishments
as made in new and improved facilities and services in the parks and
onuments, with new areas added to the System, an increase in the
rofessional staff in the field, and wide public approval for the Mission
At the biannual conference of the Service in Williamsburg, Virginia,
l December 1959, an event of transcendent importance to the National
ark Service was the receipt of a directive from Secretary of the
iterior Fred A. Seaton.
The Secretary lauded the achievements of the National Park Serv-
e in its Mission 66 program — designed to meet the needs of increasing
sitation in the National Parks and the pressures of a population
explosion " on our natural resources — and added : "Because of the sit-
ation which America confronts in this respect, I ask * * * the Na-
onal Park Service to give high priority to a program of studying and
lentifying areas which should be preserved for the enjoyment and
ispiration of all the people * * * These should include seashores,
enic mountain areas, prairie grasslands, places of national import-
ice in our history, and other nationally significant * * * areas."
Secretary Seaton 's directions included : development of a plan for a
rstem of reserve areas from which future generations may draw for
eeded parks and recreation areas; the establishments of new parks,
lonuments, recreation areas, and historic sites to complete the Na-
onal Park System and meet the growing need for such areas at the
ational level ; put into effect programs for the most efficient use of
le Service organization, and training and career development of its
ersonnel ; encourage and assist in the establishment and development
f State park systems, and other public lands recreational opportuni-
276 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTER!
ties; keep clearly in view the importance of preserving true wildern
areas in the System for future generations ; and to keep uppermost
mind the directive of the Congress when establishing the Natio:
Park Service in 1916 : "to conserve the scenery and the natural a
historic objects and the wildlife therein and to provide for the enj<
ment of the same in such manner and by such means as will lei
them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations."
The Mission 66 program — now in its fifth year — was launched
July 1, 1956, for the purpose of staffing and equipping the Natio
Park System to care for an estimated 80 million visitors in 196(
the year the National Park Service will celebrate the 50th anniverss
of its establishment.
The year again showed an increase in total public visits to j
parks and monuments, from 60,554,000 in fiscal 1959 to 65,959,000
1960. This follows the trend of previous years and necessita
stepped up planning for further renovation, conservation and ad
tional facilities to meet the demands of coming years.
During the year the National Park Service began evaluating j
accomplishments and experiences of the Mission 66 program to d
and measuring them against the overall goals. The Service v
put the resultant new ideas and thoughts into workable plans wh
will be a guide in revamping the Mission 66 program, profiting fr<
lessons of the past and geared to anticipated needs.
Hence, Mission 66 began a study to determine what would hi
to be accomplished in addition to its original program to attain
objectives set for 1966, and to fulfill the purpose for which the I
tional Park Service was established in 1916 : "to conserve the scen<
and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife * * * and
provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by si
means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of futi
The Mission 66 program is not only concerned with the large-sc
development of new and improved visitor facilities, the reconstr
tion of roads and trails, and the laying out of campgrounds,
equally emphasizes the preservation of the great wilderness areas
the National Parks and Monuments — America's priceless heritage
During the 12-month period, 1,252 active projects were under c<
struction involving an investment of approximately $105,237,$
including new and improved campsites and visitor centers. Duri
this period 528 projects representing an investment of ab
$38,000,000 were completed and opened for public use.
Since Mission 66 was launched, 3,357 construction projects invo
ing an investment of $213,000,000 have been completed or are un<
construction. In addition, private capital invested some $20,000,(
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 277
the construction of public accommodations and related service
Camping increased and continued to tax facilities. Of 4,829,000
corded camper-days, 11 percent were spent under conditions in
cess to the capacity of the parks' campgrounds. The trend in trailer-
mping also showed an upward curve with more than one in five
mper-days spent in trailers.
To manage the enlarged operations and extended activities in the
rstem, and to meet the need resulting from the greatly increasing
imber of visitors, additional employees were hired and trained to
gment the park and monument personnel which at the end of the
cal year totaled 4778 permanent employees, while during the height
the visitor-season another 3724 seasonal employees were on the
lis of the National Park Service.
Major road projects placed under contract during the year totaled
,181,413, which involved 108 miles of reconstructed roads. A total
83 miles of reconstructed park routes were completed at a cost
The legislative phase of the National Park Service's program is an
-important one. Under the guidance of the Administration and the
apartment, the Service obtained gratifying results in the form of
agression al action throughout the year.
Legislation was enacted authorizing the establishment of three new
rks. The events relating to the beginning of the American Revolu-
>n are to be preserved at Minute Man National Historical Park,
assachusetts. Bent's Old Fort in Colorado, a fort and trading post
lportant in the opening of the west, is authorized to be made a na-
>nal historic site. The Civil War battle which climaxed the cam-
ign to keep Missouri in the Union will be commemorated through the
"ablishment of Wilsons Creek Battlefield National Park.
Highly important is the enactment of law by which there may be
moved the threat of adverse developments at the Antietam Na-
>nal Battlefield Site, Maryland. Authority was granted to acquire
acres of land and to further preserve the historic scene by obtain-
g covenants, restrictions, or easements on an additional 1017 acres.
Much needed authority was provided to carry out the Mission 66
ogram for Mount Rainier National Park, which involves moving
e headquarters from Longmire to Ashf ord, Washington, outside the
Important boundary legislation was enacted for Zion National
irk, Utah; Custis-Lee Mansion, Virginia; Fort Laramie National
onument, Wyoming; and Stones River National Battlefield, Ten-
-ssee. In all 27 laws directly affecting the National Park Service
ere enacted in fiscal year 1960.
278 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERN
In addition to legislation affecting areas of the National Pa:
System, Congress enacted Public Law 86-523 which reiterates ai
strengthens the Federal government's policy for the preservatk
of archeological and historical data which might otherwise be lo
as the result of dam and reservoir construction.
Other measures still pending in Congress which are especial
important are the proposals to establish national seashores, to crea
the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, to revi
the boundary and provide an entrance road to Dinosaur Nation
Monument, and to acquire the Storer College property for additi<
to Harpers Ferry National Monument.
The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, as a pa
of the Mission 66 program, showed considerable progress. Complet<
were the following studies: Prehistoric Hunters and Gatherer
English Exploration and Settlement to 1700; Development of t'
English Colonies 1700-1775; Political and Military Affairs, 1761
1830 ; The Civil War, 1861-1865 ; as well as a number of subthem
in Westward Expansion: The Cattlemens Empire; Military ar
Indian Affairs; The Farming Frontier; the Texas Revolution ai
War with Mexico; Overland Migrations West of the Mississipp
and two special studies — Fort De Soto, and Fort Union and t
Santa Fe Trail.
Largely on the basis of funds donated to the Service by the Socie
of the Lees of Virginia and others, the Service was able to purcha
the Middleton Collection of Lee memorabilia, from the estate of t
late Mrs. Robert E. Lee, 3d. The collection, comprising over 2<
pieces of furniture, crested, silverware, glassware, chinaware, et
once belonging to General Robert E. Lee, will now be permanent
preserved at the Custis-Lee Mansion National Memorial in Arlingto
To accomplish its program for archeological investigations
Service areas and for salvage of archeological data in reservoir are
throughout the nation, the Service negotiated contracts with Sta
and local institutions totalling $328,500. An additional $122,0(
was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution for archeologic
salvage work in the Missouri River Basin and in the Walter
George reservoir (Ala.-Ga.).
The interpretive program of the National Park Service provide
additional educational services during the past year to the eve
increasing number of visitors to the parks, monuments and oth
Total visits to the units of the National Park System increase
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 279
>m 58 million in 1958 to nearly 63 million during 1959. Under the
ssion 66 program, facilities for visitor comfort, information, in-
pretation as well as inspiration have increased and were substan-
lly improved during the past several years and this trend continued
ring the past year.
Slew visitor centers were added to the system and the museum
lections were enriched by accession of valuable objects, such as a
lica of the 1902 glider used by Orville and Wilbur Wright at
tty Hawk, N.C.
Special events continued to emphasize the importance of the
tion's outstanding historic sites, an example of which was the first
cial raising of the 49-star flag at Fort McHenry National Monument
d Historic Shrine at Baltimore on July 4, 1959. Other important
3cial events were the celebration incident to the acceptance of lands
r Pea Ridge National Military Park and the celebration at Getty s-
rg and Abraham Lincoln Birthplace in connection with the Lincoln
rvice to the Public
The interpretive services program continued to offer park visitors
ide and lecture services by skilled and experienced naturalists,
3torians, and archeologists — suppiemented by new automatic audio-
sual presentations, museum exhibits, self-guiding trails, wayside
hibits, and interpretive signs and markers.
This public service added not only to the park visitor's enjoyment
it provided an understanding of the natural and historic environ-
pt, which lead to important benefits — a greater appreciation of
The earthquake in Yellowstone National Park and the eruption of
ilauea Volcano in Hawaii National Park provided outstanding
>portunities for vivid interpretation of geologic events which were
lly utilized and which will play major roles in future interpretive
'ograms of both national parks.
Some 48 nonprofit scientific and historical societies contributed
!7,896 for aid to the National Park Service in 1959 for research,
aterial and equipment and library purchases in its interpretive
Visitor centers, constructed under Mission 66, are outstanding
matures of the parks and monuments and contain much appreciated
icilities to help visitors obtain greater benefit and enjoyment from
leir park visits.
Geysers in Yellowstone National Park, an attractive feature to the ever-increasin
number of visitors to the park, reacted violently to the August 1959 earthquake
and many changed their pattern of behavior.
Nine more of these multiple-use buildings were opened to the publi
during the fiscal year, including centers at Arches National Monu
ment, Utah ; Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah ; George Washingtoi
Carver National Monument, Mo. ; Grand Teton National Park, Wyo.
Mammoth Cave National Park, Ky. ; Montezuma Castle Nationa
Monument, Ariz.; Mound City Group National Monument, Ohio
Zion National Park, Utah; and National Capital Parks in Wash
Story-telling exhibits were installed in 12 visitor centers and amonj
these the exhibits for the Eock Creek Nature Center in Washington
D.C, had the additional feature of being designed particularly fo
students and school children. This center also contains a planetarium
an assembly room and an exhibit room with "work-it-yourself" am
Roadside and Trailside Interpretation
During the 1960 fiscal year, facilities to guide the visitor along th
roadsides and trailsides in many of the parks were expanded. Road
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 281
ie exhibits for the entire park were completed at Fredericksburg-
jotsylvania National Military Park. Important new roadside or
lyside exhibits were also completed on the Natchez Trace Parkway,
Fort Frederica National Monument, in Rocky Mountain National
irk, at Navajo National Monument, and in Olympic National Park.
New interpretive signs and markers were completed at Fort Fred-
ica National Monument, Fredericksburg-Spotsylvania National
ilitary Park, Abraham Lincoln National Historical Park, George
ashington Carver National Monument, Grand Teton National
irk, Scotts. Bluff National Monument, Craters of the Moon National
onument, Olympic National Park, and Isle Royale National Park.
udto Visual Planning and Installation
The quality and number of audiovisual interpretive programs, sup-
ementing personal services, advanced greatly during the fiscal year,
ie use of professional script writers and narrators, coupled with
iproved electronic equipment and production techniques, resulted
higher quality presentations.
Fully automatic slide-sound equipment was installed in 15 visitor
titers and 6 new amphitheaters, and 29 audio stations were placed
operation. Loudspeakers were being replaced at audio stations
' captioned slides and handphones, reducing the disturbance made
r the loudspeakers.
During the year park staffs evaluated and catalogued more than
1,000 museum items, bringing the records up to date and allowing the
ansfer of items needed for display in new visitor centers.
Equipment needed for the safe storage of museum specimens was
irchased for 62 parks. Of particular significance, specialists under-
•ok the restoration of the Gettysburg cyclorama and the ceiling mural
\ the Senate Chamber in Congress Hall, Independence National
Public-spirited citizens donated museum items of considerable value,
>tably 16th century objects for Castillo de San Marcos and Fort
aroline, and objects closely associated with the Wright Brothers and
eorge Washington Carver.
The National Museum, the Air Force Museum, the Ohio State Mu-
ium and other institutions generously lent or transferred museum
ems to museums of the National Park Service.
282 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERK
Reenactments of Americans historic events, like this one at Harpers Ferry Natiot
Monument, recall our Nation's glorious past and heighten the visitors' interest.
Archeological, geological and historical research was continu
throughout the fiscal year, among others, in the Virgin Islands;
Effigy Mounds, Iowa ; Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Calif. ; Death Valley
Calif, and Nev. ; Joshua Tree, Calif.; Harpers Ferry, W. Va., ai
Md. ; Jefferson Expansion National Memorial, Mo.; Independen
Hall National Historical Park in Philadelphia, Pa. ; Theodore Roos
velt National Memorial Park, N. Dak. ; and Wetherill Mesa in Me
The National Park Service also carried on an extensive archeologic
salvage program in 29 reservoir areas under cooperative agreemen
with the Smithsonian Institution and 31 State and local institutior
In the Missouri River basin, the Smithsonian Institution put foi
parties in the field. Surveys and excavations in the Glen Canyc
and Navajo Reservoirs — now under construction in the Upper Col
rado River basin — were conducted by the University of Utah and tl
lockslides caused by earthquakes in Yellowstone National Park in August, 1959,
equired extensive repairs to roads and buildings, amounting to several million
Museums of Northern Arizona and New Mexico. The University of
exas carried on several projects in the Iron Bridge and Ferrells
bridge Keservoirs in Texas.
Geological research in corporation with the Department's Geological
Survey involved studies in glaciology as well as geologic mapping in
lacier, Mount Rainier and Grand Canyon National Parks. In the
)iological sciences, the Service continued the study of elk of Jackson
Sole, Wyo., and the study of wolves and moose on Isle Eoyale in
Michigan. Ecological studies were conducted in California in Joshua
>ee National Monument and in Death Valley National Monument a
tudy on big horn sheep continued. Marine biology studies con-
inued also at Everglades and Virgin Islands National Parks.
Historical research was inaugurated at San Juan National Historic
Site and architectural research in the Virgin Islands, while exhaustive
•esearch continued at Independence National Historical Park and at
larpers Ferry National Monument.
284 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO
The mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes in areas of tl
National Park System continue to be of prime visitor interest. Tl
perpetuation of all native animals in their natural environment
a primary objective of the National Park Service and cooperate
research by qualified institutions and individuals, such as the researe
on grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park by the Montana Sta
University, is encouraged by the Service.
Management and interpretation of important fishery resources
the parks continued, including the providing of accurate informatic
on native fishes, and the establishment of self-guiding underwat<
trails in seashore environments.
The phenomenal increase in family camping, recreational pursuit
and education interests in the National Parks and other areas wj
demonstrated by the mounting demands for informational and educi
The Service produced 11,650,000 copies of free informational publ
cations during the fiscal year, including new format folders for Crate
Lake and Glacier National Parks and nine smaller areas.
Two new historical handbooks — Antietam and Vanderbilt Mai
sion — were added to the series, and one — The Lincoln Museum an
The House Where Lincoln Died — was revised. One natural histor
handbook — Great Smoky Mountains — was added to that series, an
two in the archeological research series — Archeological Excavatior
at Jamestown and The Hubbard Site and Other Tri-Wall Structure
in New Mexico and Colorado — were issued. The Service also pre
duced the report entitled Recreation Today and Tomorrow in th
Missouri River Basin, in cooperation with the Missouri Basin Intel
The Public Inquiries Unit received 54,984 requests for informatio
during the 1960 fiscal year, which total included 1,235 foreign request!
and 1,182 congressional requests.
A total of 295,715 informational publications was received durin
the year and bulk distribution used in answer to requests receive
totaled 213,040, exclusive of sales publications and other miscellaneou
publications — such as concessioner publications.
During the year, the National Park Service increased its collectio
of photographs to better illustrate Service publications and for im
proved park representation in newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 285
A survey of the demands on the National Park Service from writers,
ark administrators, governments as well as private institutions in
her countries, showed approximately 600 foreign inquiries in a
[>zen foreign languages received for information and technical
Cooperation with the Standard Oil Co. of California and the Sin-
air Oil Corp., in their respective programs of educational radio
rograms and instructive magazine advertisements, culminated in
)th firms receiving the Department's Conservation Service Award
>r enlightened public-service programs in the field of conservation,
ublic attention was also given to the 40th anniversary of the nature
uide service in the National Park System, begun in 1920 by Dr. and
rs. Charles M. Goethe. Dr. Goethe was also the recipient this year
f the Department's Conservation Service Award.
The Civil War Centennial Commission continued its activity in
reparation for observance of the centennial years. Meetings were
eld in Washington and in St. Louis.
The Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission was continued from
larch 1 to June 30, 1960, to enable the Commission to complete its
nal report to Congress.
The Hudson- Champlain Celebration Commission observed the 350th
nniversary of the explorations of Henry Hudson and Samuel de
The Boston National Historic Sites Commission, created in 1955
» study historic objects, sites and buildings in Boston and vicinity
elating to the Colonial and Revolutionary periods, extended its 2-
r ear study to June 30, 1960, at which time the final report of the
Commission was submitted and the Commission disbanded.
The New York City National Shrines Advisory Board, established
o promote public cooperation in the rehabilitation, preservation, and
levelopment of Federal Hall National Memorial, Castle Clinton and
Statue of Liberty National Monuments in New York City, added new
nembers to the body in the spring of 1960 — which undertook a re-
ived program to secure donated funds to complete the development
>f the areas by the opening date of the World's Fair in New York in
The protection and management of back country has become more
ritical with the growing interest in the primitive and undeveloped
-reas of the parks. Studies are under way to determine the patterns
»f use and provide guides for the future.
A huge rockslide caused by earthquakes in August, 1959, resulted in several million
dollars worth of damage to Yellowstone National Park, in Wyoming. Although
there were 1 7,000 people in the park at the time, no one was injured.
The training of park rangers, foresters and supporting personnel,
was extended to men in all areas in a variety of programs and subjects
tailored to fit the many situations encountered in the Service. Em-
phasis was placed on safety, forest and structural fire control, radio-
logical monitoring, search and rescue, law enforcement, and mountain-
eering. The first water safety and rescue seminar was conducted at
Everglades National Park for 16 park rangers and 6 other Federal
employees. The National Park Service Training Center at Yo-
semite National Park completed its third successful year, graduating
50 new employees.
During 1959 the Service's system for generating and reporting
statistics on public use of the parks was overhauled. Statistical
methods are more rigorously controlled than heretofore. The new
system is designed to become a basic vehicle in developing data for
management and planning relating to park workloads, development
priorities, design loads, changes in public pressures and needs, and
identification of opportunities for new public services.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 287
The divisions in four regional offices have been staffed with division
efs and good progress was made in improving assistance to the
rks in the fields of preservation and protection.
k major revision of title 36, Code of Federal Regulations, chapter
was completed and a new edition of the Code was issued. This
dates and modernizes the regulations in view of the changes in
itor use practices in recent years.
he mountainous parks are consistently attracting about 20,000
'sons annually toward the rugged summits. It is a recreational
let with heavy returns in satisfaction, but inherent hazards are
rays present and 10 lives were claimed this year by those seeking
; the high and trackless places. The relatively infrequent accidents
i mostly of a dramatic nature and thus become widely known. The
art, time and cost that goes into search, rescue or evacuation is
\e of Water Areas
rhe vigorous upward trend in all boating and water activities opens
w areas of use and demands for protection services and facilities
an increasingly greater level. This is creating a lag that must be
srcome to meet obligations for visitor safety, enjoyment and preser-
tion of park features.
velve Months of Service
[n 1941, 40 percent of that year's 21 million park visits occurred in
ly and August. In 1959, 21 million visits occurred in these 2
►nths alone, but constituted only 34 percent of the year's total of
rhis means that parks now receive during nonpeak travel months
>r three times the volume of travel that formerly occurred during
i peak period. The visitor pattern has shifted so the provision of
3lic services now approaches a year-long operation versus a seasonal
rest Fire Control
rhe fire control workload increased substantially this year. The
> seasons, particularly in the western mountain parks, extended
The Hurricane Ridge Lodge in Olympic National Park, Wash., is a vantage poin
giving a sweeping view of the forested Olympic Mountains.
2 to 3 months beyond normal. The occurrence of 517 fires was i
significant increase over the previous 5-year average of 368.
Man-caused fires increased 42 percent over the previous year, an<
lightning-caused fires, 9 percent. However, the 3,061 acres of par]
vegetation burned was far less than the previous 5 -year average o
8,444 acres and the lowest since 1939. The safety record of no dis
abling injuries during firefighting activities is outstanding.
Greater use was made of aircraft for scouting, detection, movemen
of suppression personnel and supplies, and application of fire re
tardants on burning fuels. Smoke Jumpers were utilized for th
first time in region four.
Forest Insect and Tree Disease Control
Maintenance control operations kept most insect and tree diseases
and subsequent vegetative losses, low. Barkbeetle infestations ii
mixed conifers in California increased sharply. Mountain pirn
beetles have invaded the 60,000 acres of high mountain lodgepole pin<
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 289
/ the dedication of the Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Department of
he Interior Secretary Fred A. Seaton is shown points of interest by Superintendent
Aillard D. Guy.
n Yosemite National Park which have been weakened by repeated
stacks of needleminer. Both infestations were combated by direct
iontrol particularly in the public use areas.
Acti-dione, an antibiotic, has proven effective in destroying white
)ine blister rust infections on western white pine. Control programs
n white pine forests are being reoriented since it is now practical to
ixtend protection to infected western white pines not included in the
>riginal ribes eradication units.
Vildlife and Fish Management
Fish management was oriented to retain natural wild fish popula-
ions and to stress that fishing is an incidental park experience rather
han a primary one. Mammoth Cave and Grand Canyon live-trapped
leer for transplants in Kentucky and the Navajo Indian Reservation.
^ bear management policy aimed at reducing personal injury to
dsitors and returning the bears to natural habitats has been initiated.
Recreation Resource Planning
The preparation of the National Park System plan, a program de-
igned for selecting and preserving, while still available, qualified
mtstanding scenic, scientific and historic areas of the Nation so that
Campsites, such as this one in Olympic National Park, Wash., are favorite vacation
spots to increasing number of visitors to the national parks.
future park needs may be fulfilled, made significant progress during
Fifty-eight areas received field investigation or were otherwise in
ventoried for possible consideration for national park purposes. Ii
addition, comprehensive studies were made of several areas to de
termine their national significance and their feasibility and suitability
for inclusion in the system. Among these are the Great Salt Lab
and Promontory Summit in Utah, Fort Davis in Texas, Fort Smith ii
Arkansas, Fort Larned in Kansas and Bent's Old Fort in Colorado.
Legislation has been introduced in Congress to establish a For
Bowie National Historic Site, Ariz. ; Hubbell Trading Post Nationa
Historic Site, Ariz., and an Arkansas Post National Memorial ii
Arkansas. The Russell Cave National Monument, Ala., is expected t<
be established by Presidential proclamation when the lands have beer
Other bills introduced in Congress would authorize comprehensiv<
field studies of areas considered to be suitable for national park in
elusion in the Northern Cascades region of Washington and Sawtootl
Mountain region of Idaho, both of which are now in national forests
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 291
Legislation authorized addition of lands at Antietam National Bat-
rfield Site, Edison Laboratory National Monument, Independence
itional Historical Park, Montezuma Castle National Monument,
d Wright Brothers National Memorial ; additions and deletions at
ngs Mountain National Military Park and Zion National Park;
jhange and addition of certain donated lands at the Everglades
itional Park ; and transfer of a small portion of San Juan National
LStoric Site to the municipality of San Juan as a city park.
Legislation also authorized boundary revisions and a change in
me for Fort Laramie National Historic Site and Stones River Na-
nal Battlefield, while boundaries of Muir Woods, Black Canyon
the Gunnison, Cabrillo and Colorado National Monuments were
rised by Presidential proclamation.
Public land orders reserved administrative sites near Juneau and
ng Salmon, Alaska, for Katmai, Sitka and Glacier Bay National
rhe McGraw-Edison Co. donated Glenmont, Thomas A. Edison's
me in West Orange, N.J., for addition to Edison Laboratory Na-
nal Monument. Mr. Wallace E. Pratt of Carlsbad, N. Mex., donated
42 acres of lands located in McKittrick Canyon, Tex., for a
;ached area addition to Carlsbad Canyon National Park. The
neral Services Administration approved transfer of about 3,600
•es of land from the Atomic Energy Commission for addition to
ndelier National Monument, as proposed by Presidential procla-
Bills introduced in Congress during the past fiscal year would
ihorize boundary adjustments at Castillo de San Marcos, Dinosaur,
irpers Ferry, and Scotts Bluff National Monuments ; Coronado Na-
tial Memorial; Blue Ridge and Natchez Trace Parkways, and
pmpic and Shenandoah National Parks.
3ther bills would establish a portion of the Tucson Mountain Park
a detached unit of Saguaro National Monument; authorize a
indary revision of the Fort Necessity National Battlefield Site;
ilitate certain land exchanges and adjustments pertinent to park
ninistration at Vicksburg National Military Park; provide a new
idquarters site for Mount Rainier National Park about 9 miles from
5 park, and a small addition to De Soto National Memorial.
*,w Areas Proposed
Flie Department recommended that the Congress authorize estab-
iment of three national seashores to be located at Cape Cod, Mass.,
dre Island, Tex., and Oregon Dunes, Oreg. Studies have continued
292 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERII
Carlsbad Caverns National Park, N. Mex., draws an ever-increasing number
visitors who enjoy its subterranean spectacle as well as the lectures by national p
for the proposed Point Reyes National Seashore in California a
Cumberland Island, Ga.
A Park Service report recommending the establishment of an Ozi
Rivers National Monument in Missouri was issued during the ye
A Great Basin National Park proposal in Nevada was considered
congressional hearings held in Nevada in December 1959. Progr
was made in evaluating a Prairie National Park proposal in Kan
and the Allagash River region in Maine. The Department suppor
the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park propo
Areas Authorized or Established
In accordance with authorizing legislation, notice of the establi
ment of Grand Portage National Monument, Minn., effective Janu;
27, 1960, was given by the Secretary. The Grand Portage Band
Chippewa Indians and the Minnesota Chippewa tribe previously
donated their trust lands within the monument boundaries to
United States for the purposes of the monument.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 293
Important sites along the route traversed by the British military
pedition from Boston to Concord, Mass., at the opening of the War
the American Revolution, were authorized to be established and
•eserved as the Minute Man National Historical Park by the act of
sptember 21, 1959.
The Wilson Creek Battlefield near Springfield, Mo., site of a
niggle between the Confederate and Union forces for control of
e State in the first year of the Civil War, was authorized to be
;ablished as a national park by act of April 22, 1960. Establish-
snt of Bent's Old Fort in Colorado as a national historic site was
thorized by act of June 3, 1960.
Park status for these areas becomes effective when sufficient lands
ve been acquired to warrant establishment.
The act of September 8, 1959 changed the designation of the
>raham Lincoln National Historical Park in Kentucky to the
>raham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site.
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park was established by Presi-
ntial proclamation on August 14, 1959, pursuant to an act of
ngress of July 25, 1956. Lands were donated by the State of Ala-
ma and the Alabama Power Co.
ttionwide Recreation Planning
[nventory of potential recreation areas and studies leading toward
5 determination of outdoor recreation needs received major emphasis
the continuing work on nationwide planning for nonurban recrea-
[n addition, efforts were made toward completion of the inventory
existing recreation areas and supplementing inventory data pre-
•usly collected. Data collected on existing areas were assembled for
) Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, as was a
leral evaluation of recreation opportunities and developments in
3cted metropolitan areas and counties throughout the country.
Findings from the 2-year recreation area survey of the Great Lakes
>reline were released in a two- volume report issued by the National
rk Service, Our Fourth Shore and Remaining Shoreline Opportuni-
3. The report recommends public preservation of important nat-
il areas and responsible planning for industrial areas to reduce
ir effect on recreation values.
5ixty-six areas were identified as possessing important recreation
ues. At least three of these, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Huron Moun-
294 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTER!
tains, and Pictured Rocks, were believed to be of national significar
and were being studied in further detail at the end of the year.
River Basin and Regional Studies
A report on Recreation Today and Tomorrow in the Missouri Rii
Basin, prepared in cooperation with the Missouri Basin Inter- Ager
Committee, was released. Cooperation with recreation groups
interagency committees included participation in work of the
kansas- White-Red Basins Inter-Agency Committee, the Colum
Basin Inter- Agency Committee, the Pacific Southwest Inter- Ager
Committee especially on the means of financing recreation deveh
ment under the provisions of the Colorado River Storage Project A
and the U.S. Study Commission, Southeast River Basins on a fi<
survey to identify "unusual areas" possessing recreation potential a
deserving consideration for meeting present and future recreati
At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, the Serv
undertook to provide recreation planning assistance on O & C lar
The field of recreation economics was stressed in research stud
made during the year, especially in connection with proposed natioi
seashore areas. Economic surveys of the proposed national seasho
at Oregon Dunes and Point Reyes were completed in collaborati
with private economic experts, and an economic study on the imp
of establishment of the proposed Cape Cod seashore was condud
under contract. Survey work was completed also on a study of 1
economic impact and sociological effects of recreation use of th
reservoirs in the Missouri River basin.
Reports are in process on two special studies being made un<
contract : (1) a study of present and future needs for organized can
ing facilities to provide camping opportunities for children in aj
9-16, and (2) a nationwide sample survey to help measure long-te
demand for public parks and recreation areas and the types of outdc
experiences that are sought.
A special survey of the demand for water resources for recreat
use was made at the request of the Senate Select Committee on I
tional Water Resources.
Advisory and Consultative Assistance
Assistance was given to 47 States on 628 occasions on a wide vari
of problems. The amount of such assistance furnished has been
ort Laramie in Wyoming, like many other National Monuments, recalls America's
arly frontier history and the opening of the West.
reasing gradually for some years, but it is still inadequate to meet
he requests arising from the States' expanding recreational programs.
One of the more significant examples was cooperation with the
Missouri State Park Board in adapting Service master-planning pro-
edures to the preparation of a master plan for Van Meter State Park.
Ifter approval by the Board, it is hoped that this may serve as a
^uide for other master plans.
Another important example is a comprehensive study of the 50,000-
>cre Custer State Park being undertaken on a reimbursable basis at
he request of the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and
> arks to determine needed acquisition, development, protection and
>perating methods and procedures required for continued administra-
ion as a State park on an adequate and proper basis.
This annual edition of a compilation of reports by State park
gencies made upon request of the National Conference on State
^arks, reveals (1) 2,433 State parks, historic sites, and related types
f recreation areas, embracing nearly 5.7 million acres, (2) attendance
i excess of 255 million, including 18 million overnight guests, (3) ex-
enditures of $51 million for operation and maintenance and $37 mil-
on for capital improvements, (4) revenue from operations amounting
) nearly $21 million, and (5) 6,966 year-round and 9,724 seasonal
296 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIC
Keeping picnic grounds in the national parks neat and tidy is an unending t
for park personnel which has to cope with man and beast.
Real Property Disposal
Recommendations were furnished to General Services Administ
tion for conveying to the States and their political subdivisions
park, recreation and historic monument purposes, 28 Federal surp
properties embracing 2,066 acres.
Most significant was the former Sampson Air Force Base n
Geneva, N.Y., with 3 miles of frontage on Seneca Lake, the largest
the Finger Lakes. The Service now has responsibility for enforc
compliance with the conditions of the deeds on 189 properties wit
total of 31,872 acres.
The Bureau of Land Management was furnished recommendati
on 40 applications from State and local agencies to acquire pul
domain lands for park and recreation purposes.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 297
eservoir Planning and Management
Nineteen recreation reports were prepared for the Department's
iireau of Reclamation and also 19 for the U.S. Army Corps of
Qgineers. A management agreement was negotiated with the Colo-
do State Park and Recreation Board for the operation and mainte-
mce of the recreation area on the Bureau's Yega Reservoir.
Recommendations made by the management survey teams during
e year should strengthen the Branches of Programs and Mainte-
,nce. The former has been given expanded functions relating to
aerating programs and the latter will be enabled to carry forward
more dynamic maintenance program for the parks.
The Branches of Concessions and Lands have achieved substantial
suits, respectively, in their fields of providing more and improved
sitor accommodations and eliminating inholdings, despite serious
istacles which have had to be overcome.
Probably the most difficult problem ahead in the land acquisition
ild is the acquiring of inholdings at Antietam National Battlefield
te, Gettysburg National Military Park, and other Civil War battle-
Id areas, before the forthcoming centennial observances.
During the fiscal year $1,700,000 was appropriated for land acquisi-
>n, of which $450,000 was allotted to the purchase of lands in Civil
ar areas. Some 20,685 acres of inholdings were acquired by pur-
ase, donation, transfer, or exchange.
Donations of land included 640 acres from the State of Texas for
g Bend National Park ; 1,322.75 acres and 37.50 acres from the State
North Carolina and the Eastern National Park and Monument
ssociation, respectively, for addition to the Blue Ridge Parkway;
id 1,284 acres from the State of Tennessee for the Foothills Parkway,
reat Smoky Mountains National Park.
Completed purchases and approved options cover some 5,385 acres
land in Glacier, Isle Royale, Rocky Mountain, and Yosemite Na-
mal Parks ; Fort Frederica, Joshua Tree, Petrified Forest, and Pin-
teles National Monuments; Colonial and Independence National
istorical Parks; Manassas National Battlefield Park; Theodore
oosevelt National Memorial Park; and Fort Clatsop National Me-
The unsurpassed grandeur of the snow-covered Logan Pass on the "Going to ti
Sun Highway" in Glacier National Park leaves unforgettable memories to millio
Water Resources and Water Rights
The special master's report on the Arizona vs. California suit ov
Lower Colorado River water rights was submitted to the Supren
Court in May. The special master limited allocation to the wate
of the main stem of the river. The right to the quantity of wat
from the main stem, which is being used at Lake Mead Nation
Recreation Area, and the right to unspecified increased future use,
needed, were recognized.
Federal rights to the use of waters tributary to the Colorado Riv
remain unaffected at Lake Mead and the other 22 parks and mon
ments in the Lower Colorado River basin. These rights were reco
nized as being based both on appropriation under State laws ai
on Federal withdrawal and reservation of the areas.
Six concession contracts were negotiated. Five of these includ
construction programs — three at Lake Mead and one each at Ca
Hatteras and Yosemite. Of the six contracts negotiated, three ha
been finally executed on behalf of the Government.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 299
The review of concession contract language and policies within the
apartment has caused this activity to be temporarily suspended.
Seven prospectuses were issued solicting offers for facilities at Big
md, Glacier, Isle Royale, Natchez Trace, Blue Ridge, Glacier Bay,
d Fort Jefferson. The Big Bend, Isle Royale, and Blue Ridge pros-
ctuses resulted from the decision that no action be taken on the
mest of National Park Concessions, Inc., for a new contract and
3 directive that prospectuses be issued for each area in which it
The only offer received in response to the Big Bend prospectus was
Dmitted by National Park Concessions, Inc., and was conditioned
on its being authorized to continue operations at Mammoth Cave,
contract is being negotiated as a result of the Natchez Trace
ission 66 Control Schedules
rhe Mission 66 Control Schedules for the parks were revised to
•lude requirements for new areas and increased costs. Also, sched-
>s for operating programs were included for the first time,
[n preparing this 200-page document, the original Mission 66 esti-
ites for operating programs were reviewed in cooperation with repre-
ltatives of the Mission 66 Staff and the Branch of Finance. New
imates were developed, taking into account factors not known when
i original estimates were prepared in 1955.
In addition to revised control schedules, a 150- page, 6-year pro-
am of public works projects was prepared in compliance with Bureau
the Budget requirements, and a tabulation showing estimated costs
Federal, State, and nonurban recreational developments for the
-fiscal-year period, 1961-1975.
As a result of recommendations of the management survey teams,
3 Branch of Programs has been assigned final responsibility for all
erating programs, and for developing procedures leading to the
eparation and submission annually of formalized programs for all
Procedures are in the process of prepartion and it is expected that
By will be put into effect during the 1961 fiscal year.
569553 0—61 20
300 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERI
Attention has been focused on park needs where water-borne tra
portation units and floating equipment are essential to efficient rna
tenance and operation. Arrangements have been made with
Chief of Transportation, Department of the Army, to secure a 1
and barges for Isle Royal e National Park and a supply ship for F
Jefferson National Monument.
The Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, has cooperated in furnish:
technical assistance in converting several gasoline-powered craft
Lake Mead to diesel power for more efficient operation and grea
Design and Construction
In fiscal 1960, 1,252 projects were included in construction progrs
of the National Park Service, including carryover projects fr
previous fiscal years. By June 30, 1,097 of these projects were cc
pleted or under construction.
Severe damage to facilities in Yellowstone National Park due
the recent earthquake, and damage incurred by volcanic activity
Hawaii National Park, required immediate remedial measures to p
vide facilities for public safety and protection of Government pr
erty requiring temporary postponement of some construction projt
Roads and Trails
Eighteen major roads projects were completed, amounting to
miles of stage reconstruction or completion at a cost of $9,883,£
Twenty-one projects totaling $9,181,413 were started during the ye
one for $41,994 has been completed ; the 20 remaining totaling $9,1!
920 added to six previously started projects costing $4,801,299 ma
a total of 26 projects costing $13,930,219 under construction at the e
of the year.
Important projects consisting of reconstruction completed dur
the year were 20 miles of the Tioga Road at Yosemite National Pa
5 miles of the Rio Grande Road at Big Bend National Park, 14 m:
of the park road at Mount McKinley National Park, 7 miles of
Peaceful Valley Loop Road at Theodore Roosevelt National Memoi
Park, and 14 miles of the Cedar Pass Pinnacles Road at Badla
National Monument, and 5 miles of the Park Entrance Road at M
Verde National Park.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 301
The National Parkways construction program concentrated on
veral parkways and provided additional visitor facilities along the
mpleted sections. Of the $16 million contract authorization pro-
ded by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1958, $240,000 was pro-
*amed for the Baltimore-Washington Parkway — Maryland ; $4,413,-
K) for the Blue Eidge Parkway — Virginia and North Carolina;
10,000 for the Colonial Parkway— Virginia ; $1,661,000 for Foot-
11s Parkway — Tennessee; $2,809,800 for the George Washington
Memorial Parkway — Virginia and Maryland; $6,365,000 for the
atchez Trace Parkway — Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi ; $165,000
>r the Palisades Parkway — District of Columbia; $35,500 for
Le Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway — District of Columbia,
id $200,000 for advance planning.
An amount of $2 million additional contract authority was provided
I the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1959 for relocation of a portion
5 the Natchez Trace Parkway to be flooded by creation of the pro-
ved Pearl River Valley reservoir near Jackson, Miss.
During the year 32 individual major projects were completed with
total value of $16 million. The completion of the 18-mile section of
le Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia extending from U.S. No. 60
>uthwesterly to the existing Peaks of Otter section including the
040-foot long James River bridge, was a major accomplishment,
he opening of this section eliminated a 25-mile detour and provided
otorists with a 211-mile scenic drive from the northern boundary of
henandoah National Park to U.S. Highway No. 460 near Roanoke.
5-mile extension of the George Washington Memorial Parkway in
irginia from Spout Run near Key Bridge to the Central Intelligence
gency Headquarters site was opened. On the Natchez Trace Park-
ay in Mississippi 35 miles were completed on the Jackson-Tupelo
lit. Numerous picnic ground facilities, campground roads, comfort
ations, maintenance buildings and utility systems were completed.
Forty-five major contracts totaling $23,715,000 were in process under
Le Bureau of Public Roads program. They include two projects on
le. 5,036-foot long Tennessee River bridge in Alabama to carry the
atchez Trace Parkway over the Pickwick reservoir, and the begin-
ing of grading work on the Foothills Parkway in Tennessee.
Field studies were provided jointly by the Bureau of Public Roads
id the National Park Service on the location of the Great River
oad in Arkansas. All 10 Mississippi River States were provided
ith similar advisory service.
302 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERI
Emphasis on visitors' facilities continued. The building constn
tion program included 18 visitor centers completed or nearing co
pletion, with 7 additional ones under construction or reaching 1
contract stage. Eighty-four projects involving over 100 histo
buildings or structural remains were in progress.
There were 87 permanent dwelling units; 55 multiple units:
seasonal buildings and a dormitory under construction. Duri
hearings on the 1961 fiscal year budget, the Service's Revised Star
ard Plans for Employee Housing were reviewed by a House Si
committee on Appropriations. The fund limitation of $20,000
in 1960 was retained, but a basis was established for clearance
projects expected to exceed that amount.
Programing of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial ^
geared to commemorate in 1964 the sesquicentennial of the foundi
of St. Louis. Revisions in planning and construction since 1£
necessitated several additions and adjustments in the professioi
services contracts. The architects are currently completing stud
of the design, structural and mechanical phases of the memor
The Historic American Buildings Survey continued recordi
historic structures with the aid of summer- student teams and throu
widening collaboration with professional and historical organizatio
universities and preservation groups. In the Virgin Islands a gn
by the Jackson Hole Preserve brought to realization the longstai
ing plans of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen
undertake a survev of early Danish architecture, under the spons
ship of HABS.
Utilities and Miscellaneous Structures
Major emphasis was given to simplification of design and accele
tion of construction of campground and related utilities. Particu
attention was given to effecting economies consistent with good pi
tice and National Park Service policy, with respect to number a
location of necessary water fountains, lighting, comfort stations, a
hydrants necessary for fire protection.
Following a study made for the National Park Service bj
specialist on beach erosion, action was initiated in cooperation w
the State of North Carolina to provide sand fixation and hurries
protection at Cape Hatteras National Seashore. The objective
to develop an effective barrier against the forces of nature wh
erode the beach. The design of the Cruz Bay marina to serve
Virgin Islands National Park was completed. Fifty-eight new s<
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 303
systems were completed and 66 new water systems increased
^ter storage facilities by 2,219,275 gallons. Eighteen new camp-
[)unds were completed as well as 978 additional campsites.
En the new format which was developed in a Mission 66 study the
,ster plan for each park is expected to become an increasingly im-
rtant and useful document.
The individual plans will define the overall objectives and controls
d establish basic requirements for all elements of a park program.
L e correlation of development to the requirements of administration,
Dtection, interpretation, and public accommodations will be greatly
engthened. Similarly, the conduct of other programs will have
ir basis in a single document thereby assuring unified direction in
jomplishing stated objectives.
National Capital Parks
An estimated 45 million persons used National Capital Parks park
cilities in fiscal 1960, with more than 5 million visitors counted at
3 five major national memorials. There were 367 special events
tended by over 2% million persons, representing a 73 percent in-
ase in special events over 1958 and a 30 percent increase over 1959.
ission 66 Improvements
A 5 -mile section of the George Washington Memorial Parkway
>ng the Virginia Palisades was opened by President Eisenhower
November 3; the Old Stone House in Georgetown was furnished
d placed in operation as a historic house museum on January 24;
b House Where Lincoln Died underwent major rehabilitation and
is reopened to the public by the Secretary of the Interior on July 4 ;
b Netherlands Carillon Tower was accepted on behalf of the people
the United States by the Secretary of the Interior on May 5 ; the
)ck Creek Nature Center was dedicated on June 4 ; and a new staff
arters at camp 5 and paving circulatory roads were completed
Prince William Forest Park.
A new recreation building at camp 2 was constructed at Catoctin
ountain Park; major road improvement was undertaken in Rock
:eek Park and extensions of parking areas completed at the Carter
irron Amphitheater and Mount Vernon; extensive planting and
tproved landscaping was accomplished throughout the park system,
eluding the addition of 4,687 trees and 7,827 shrubs. Major land-
a,pe improvements were made to 14 separate park areas.
304 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERU
Planning and Land Acquisition
A contract was awarded for the design of a six-lane Lincoln IV
morial underpass and redevelopment of the Lincoln Memorial Pla:
A lease agreement was negotiated between the Potomac Elect
Power Co. and National Capital Parks for 790 acres of wilderne
type land at Great Falls, Va., for a period of 50 years. Such agr
ment will insure protection for this rugged natural area and may p:
vide for its eventual inclusion as a key unit in the National Capi
Budget and Finance
While the Service's 1960 appropriations for construction of bur
lii^s, utilities and other facilities were less than the amount app
priated for 1959, appropriation increases were provided in 1960
strengthen the operating programs. There follows a comparison
the 1960 appropriations with those for 1959 :
Management and protection ..
12, 477, 100
1, 429, 300
30, 000, 000
$16, 772, 000
14, 435, 000
1, 475. 000
16, 735, 000
Maintenance and rehabilitation of physical facilities
General administrative expenses . ... .. ..
Construction _ .
Construction (liquidation of contract authorization)
Total cash appropriations
79, 962, 600
Construction (amount by which roads and trails and parkways
contract authorization exceeds cash appropriation) ._
2, 000, 000
Total new obligational authority
i 81, 962, 600
85, 417, 000
1 Includes $14,765,500 of 1959 contract authorization for roads and trails and parkways construction
vanced to the 1958 fiscal year for obligation.
At the close of the fiscal year, the Service's program for i
provement in financial management, which has been in progress sii
1954, was nearing completion. One important feature of the progr
virtually completed during the year was that of inventorying a
placing under accounting control all of the fixed assets in the pj
areas that were acquired or constructed prior to the installation
the new accounting system.
For the first time in its history the Service now has complete inv
tories of all its fixed assets and under the new accounting system si
inventories will be kept current at all times. Steady progress
made in the review and revision of the draft accounting handbc
which should be ready for General Accounting Office considerat
and approval within a few months.
* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1961 — 598336
•JITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Stewart L. Udall, Secretary
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Conrad L. Wirth, Director
of the Commissioner
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Reprinted from the
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE
SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1961
National Park Service
Conrad L. Wirth, Director
A New Administration, the half-way point in the Mission 66 pro-
gram, and inception of the Parks for America movement marked fiscal
1961 for the Department of the Interior's National Park Service
Vigorous words backed by immediate commitments to action
launched President Kennedy's approach to America's Recreation
Frontier. In his Special Message to Congress on Natural Resources,
the President charted a dramatic course to preserve the Nation's
rapidly disappearing recreation lands.
He stressed the importance of the National Park System — its con-
tribution to "America's health, morale, and culture ..." He urged
immediate congressional action ". . . leading to the establishment of
seashore and shoreline areas such as Cape Cod, Padre Island and
Point Reyes." And he instructed the Secretary of the Interior, in
cooperation with other conservation groups — public and private — to
"formulate a comprehensive Federal recreational lands program."
The sense of urgency conveyed in the President's message has been
relayed by Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall to every level
of the National Park Service. In an address on March 6, 1961, Secre-
tary Udall stated : "The talk today is of overurbanization, exploding
population, and vanishing countryside. . . . We are today in a state
of long-term crisis. . . . The overriding mandate to conservation-
ists today is to preserve the natural habitat of man — to preserve it
against the onslaught of bulldozers, cement mixers and subdividers."
It is in this context of crisis that we must assess the accomplish-
ments of the National Park Service during the year, that we must
evaluate the Mission 66 program — with 5 years gone and 5 to go —
that we must take our sights on a future that will challenge our best
358 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
What then, have been the accomplishments this year ? Details are
related in following sections of this report, but the selected summary
below is useful for overall perspective. During fiscal year 1961, the
National Park Service :
Provided recreation opportunities for nearly 76 million visitors
and at the same time preserved the wilderness and natural values of
the parks. This is the most important single accomplishment of the
Service and the System ; it is the final measure of all other activities.
Activated five new areas, among them Haleakala in Hawaii:
America's 30th National Park.
Opened 10 new Park visitor centers to the public.
Continued studies of potential local, State, and Federal recreation
areas throughout the country.
Initiated public tours of Glenmont, the Thomas A. Edison home.
Tightened motorboat regulations in wilderness areas.
Inaugurated important wildlife management programs and studies.
Embarked on a concentrated land-acquisition program for Civil
War areas, in line with the Nationwide Centennial Observance.
Improved boundaries of many parks and eliminated key private
inholdings, notably at Mammoth Cave National Park.
Launched the Registered Historical Landmark Program.
Accelerated construction programs to provide relief for eco-
nomically depressed areas.
Strengthened maintenance functions to assure better preservation
and use of park resources.
Encouraged substantial new investments by concessioners to provide
better visitor facilities.
Expended or obligated $92 million for 1,147 construction projects,
including new and improved campsites and new visitor centers.
Completed and opened for public use 438 facilities representing an
investment of $21 million.
Improved management, protection, and interpretation at parks by
adding 1,222 new permanent employees.
Improved the caliber of present employees through training pro-
grams, such as those conducted at the Service's Training Center in
Yosemite National Park.
Underpinning the Service's aspirations for the future was a com-
prehensive legislative program. Given the need for quick action to
save significant open lands, the most important elements of this pro-
gram were legislative recommendations to create new park, recreation,
and shoreline areas. Cape Cod, Padre Island, and Point Reyes Na-
tional Seashores were among those recommended. Other pending
Canoeing on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is a favorite outdoor sport shared by
hikers who frequent the towpath throughout the year. The influx of vacationers
who like the great outdoors requires determined efforts by the Park Service to find
more recreation areas in the National Park System.
bills would authorize, among others, Great Basin and Prairie National
Parks and Ozark Rivers National Monument.
Mission 66 Reappraisal
Mission 66 is a 10-year conservation program for the National Park
System. Its whole purpose is to make possible the best and wisest
use of America's scenic and historic heritage. That means maximum
enjoyment with maximum protection of those features and those
qualities which make it a national park system unmatched in the
world. The purpose has not changed, but the magnitude of the task
has. That is why substantial time and energy has been devoted this
year to reappraising Mission 66.
Five years ago, conditioned by the "patch-on-patch" psychology
of the war years, park plans seemed overbold. But the vitality, the
mobility, and the prosperity of this Nation have proved that they
were not bold enough.
360 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
In the 5 years just past, hundreds of construction projects have
been completed, a unique system of interpretive centers for park visi-
tors has mushroomed across the land, camping facilities have been
improved, roads have been repaved and relocated.
But instead of the urgency being over, we find ourselves facing a
new dimension where an action program is required which dwarfs the
first 5 years of Mission 66.
As President Kennedy commented, cooperation between conserva-
tion agencies and groups must be strengthened at every level. Con-
servation and wholesome recreation are the elements of one national
problem ; the National Parks are not islands unto themselves.
Visitor facilities and existing parks are not enough now, much less
for coming generations. By the year 2000 there will be more than
360 million Americans.
Public response to Mission 66, on the whole, has been overwhelm-
ingly favorable. The American people wanted and got improved
facilities in their parks. They appreciated this turn for the better.
But there has been concern and criticism, too.
Is Mission 66 overdeveloping the parks? Are the essential values
of the System being compromised in the attempt to provide for the
onslaught of visitors? These voices have been listened to. Where
they have been uninformed, every effort has been made to allay fears
with facts. Where the voices have offered solid criticism and have
pointed out mistakes, programs have been modified to prevent jeop-
ardy of lasting values in the parks.
The National Park Service is charged with a single, but twofold
purpose : To provide for public enjoyment of the parks in a manner
that leaves them unimpaired for future generations. Preservation is
combined with use, not alienated from it. The purpose of Mission 66,
in its inception and yet today, has been to contain and channel the
inundation of people before sheer volume destroyed the basic values
of the System. The wilderness character of the System has not been
sacrificed to Mission 66, but saved by it.
Observations indicate that the principal activities of park visitors
are camping, hiking to outlying points of interest on park trails,
nature walks with naturalists, and attending campfire programs and
lectures. The vast majority of those who travel to the parks have a
good appreciation of what the parks are for and how they should
Challenge of the Future
The "quite crisis" of disappearing recreation lands has awakened
Americans. They are tired of going to crowded, over-regulated parks.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 361
They want space and they want quite. These are other names for
Out of the pervasive need for expanded recreation lands a new con-
servation movement has sprung: Parks for America. It involves
the cooperative effort of Federal, State, and local park and recreation
It is an education in the growing interdependence of our society to
hear men and women from these different governmental levels discuss
park and recreation problems. The problems are mutual and they
demand mutual solutions. In this realization and the action program
it compels lies the challenge and the hope of America's recreation
Parks for America ties together the many strands that make up
America's Kecreation Frontier : Mission 66 and a growing, balanced
National Park System ; the National Kecreation Plan ; and State and
local park and recreation systems.
In concert, the many agencies and governmental levels involved have
the chance to save significant portions of man's natural habitat for our
Outstanding as a milestone of the program was the Mission 66
Frontiers Conference held in April 1961 in Grand Canyon National
Park. Here the park superintendents, representing the grass roots of
park conservation, met with the planners and administrators to take
stock of progress made during the first half of the program and to
set the stage for the next 5 years. A sober examination of what had
been accomplished, an evaluation of successes and failures, and a re-
dedication to the promise of Mission 66 were the main accomplishments
of the Conference.
A reappraisal of the objectives as well as the progress of the program
was a significant feature of Mission 66 activity during the year. The
result has strengthened our resolution to bring the program to full
accomplishment. Gratifying progress is being made, but it must be
speeded up. Increased emphasis must be given to developing a com-
prehensive program of research to enhance the knowledge needed for
all phases of park protection, interpretation and maintenance. Man-
agement improvement also needs to be pushed forward at a faster
pace. Staffing schedules must be made to keep pace with the provi-
sion of physical facilities.
™ TFT. §L
it fHIwW ; j(f
Preservation and restoration are continued operations of the National Park Service
at Harpers Perry National Monument as in many other units of the park system.
The picture shows Shenandoah Street in Harpers Perry, a town of outstanding
scenic and historic interest.
Employee training needs to be stepped up all along the line. But
one of the greatest challenges is the necessary expansion of the Na-
tional Park System itself.
As a Nation we must provide for the physical, cultural, and spirit-
ual well-being of the people. We must protect and preserve the
natural and historical features that represent the greatness of Amer-
ica. The National Park System must be expanded if this is to be done
and the growing population is to be provided the open space it needs
for refreshment and relaxation. We have learned from the seashore
studies that delay in acquiring park and recreation lands means lost
opportunities. Remaining areas of natural, scientific, historic, and
recreational significance on a national scale must be found and dedi-
cated to the public welfare before they are lost forever.
Providing parks and recreational opportunities for people is not
alone a Federal responsibility. An important part of Mission 66
planning consists of developing programs in cooperation with State,
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 363
county, municipal and other local agencies. Parks for America is
being launched as a cooperative program designed to pull together
the aims, resources, and skills of all professional park people and
citizen groups in a unified plan for a stronger and culturally richer
Recreation Resource Planning
Localities, States, the Federal Government together face a crisis
in saving space now, and together they must act to set aside national
recreational areas and city playgrounds, State parks and county green
belts, and pay a high price for land that will soon be even more costly
or else committed to developments. Time and economics no longer
will allow piecemeal action. There must be a pooling of funds and
effort by Federal, State, and local governments if park needs now and
for the future are to be met.
Accordingly, the National Conference on State Parks, the American
Institute of Park Executives and other organizations are cooperating
with the National Park Service in a concerted program to provide
adequate Parks for America, an eleventh hour effort to seek authority
md money to bid successfully in the competitive land market while
suitable parklands are yet available, and to defend existing parks
against encroachment. Secretary Udall has given Parks for America
Nationwide Recreation Planning
As an integral part of Mission 66, the National Park Service is
preparing a nationwide plan for parks, parkways, and recreation
areas to be published in 1962, outlining a program that would provide
ill segments of our present and future population with adequate
outdoor recreation areas near their homes for frequent day and week-
end use, as well as more remote areas for vacation use. In the studies
leading to the plan, we are working closely with the President's Out-
loor Recreation Resources Review Commission.
The report will present a list of specific potential sites as well as
recommended sites for consideration as parks, parkways, and recrea-
tion areas in each of the 50 States, of local, State and National sig-
lificance. Following publication of the report, the Service expects
:o cooperate with the States in the preparation of individual State
The inventory of some 5,000 existing local, State and Federal parks
md recreation areas has been completed and approximately 2,400
364 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
potential areas have been studied so far. Also preliminary State
plans have been prepared in cooperation with park and planning
officials of West Virginia, North Carolina, Ohio, Nevada, and
River Basin and Regional Studies
The Service cooperated with the United States Study Commission,
Southeast River Basins, in preparing recreation plans for eight river
basins encompassing parts of Georgia, Alabama, Florida, South Caro-
lina, and North Carolina.
In cooperation with the Corps of Engineers, the Service is also
conducting a recreation study of the Potomac River Basin covering
parts of Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. In
these river basin studies recreation is a major planning purpose along
with water supply, flood control, and pollution abatement.
The Service cooperated with the Department's Bureau of Land
Management in the evaluation of the recreational potentialities of
certain public domain lands to determine their suitability for ad-
ministration as park or recreation areas by an appropriate level of
National Park System Plan
As a part of Mission 66, work has gone forward on the National
Park System Plan to round out the National Park System and in-
sure its future adequacy. Sixty-one areas, totaling more than 3.5
million acres, have been identified as having National Park possibili-
ties, and studies of 10 more are under way.
Of more immediate import, are 11 specific recommendations, many
of them supported by bills in Congress, to create new National Park
areas. These include Cape Cod, Oregon Dunes, Point Reyes, anc
Padre Island National Seashores; Chesapeake and Ohio National
Historical Park to make adequate the canal property now in National
Monument status; and National Historic Site designation for Fort
Bowie and Hubbell Trading Post in Arizona, and Old Fort Davis
Also included in the recommended legislation is a bill to authorize
establishment of Alexander Hamilton's home in New York as a Na-
tional Monument, and Abraham Lincoln's boyhood home in Indiana
as a National Memorial. Buck Island Reef, near St. Croix, Virgin
Islands, one of the finest marine gardens in the Caribbean, has been
recommended for establishment as a National Monument.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 365
Areas Authorized or Established
Five new units were added to the National Park System during
1961. Arkansas Post National Memorial commemorates white settle-
ment of the lower Mississippi Valley. Russell Cave National Monu-
ment, donated by the National Geographic Society, protects an arche-
ological site of 8,000 years of continuous habitation by prehistoric
Fort Christian, believed to be the oldest standing structure in the
United States Virgin Islands, was established at St. Thomas National
Historic Site. In addition, the portion of Hawaii National Park on
the island of Maui was designated as a separate park — Haleakala —
and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal lands were given National Monu-
The boundaries of 10 units of the National Park System were im-
proved by legislation and presidential proclamation during 1961, and
action is being considered to make boundary adjustments in 11 other
Encroachments continued to threaten the National Parks during
1961. Mining claims and prospecting beset Mount McKinley National
Park, Alaska, Death Valley National Monument, and Grand Canyon
National Park, Ariz. A proposed interstate highway would bisect
Ocmulgee National Monument.
Reservoir Planning and Management
Twenty-seven recreation reports were prepared for the Depart-
ment's Bureau of Reclamation and 31 for the Corps of Engineers,
and agreements were negotiated with State and local agencies for the
management of recreation lands and facilities at 7 Reclamation reser-
voirs. Forty-two applications for Federal Power Commission permits
and licenses were reviewed and recommendations furnished to the
Office of the Project Review Coordinator. Increasing emphasis has
been given to review of Reclamation reservoir proposals to assure
that current reports and pending legislation provide adequately for
recreation lands and facilities.
Assistance was given on 629 occasions in 47 States on a wide variety
of problems including interpretative planning on 24 parks in 10
States ; additionally, participation from the standpoint of interpreta-
tion was given in four training meetings. Included also is planning
assistance to several Indian tribes for developing park and recreation
The ever-increasing number of visitors to the National Parks and Monuments re-
quires a constant enlarging of and adding to parking, picnic and campgrounds.
potentials of their lands to accommodate tourists and vacationers,
thus strengthening the tribal economies.
Bequests for such assistance from the States is expected to rise
appreciably in the future because of park expansion programs re-
sulting from increased appropriations and bond issues such as those
approved last year in Kentucky, Michigan, and New York, and others
being considered in California, New Hampshire, New Jersey, anc
Real Property Disposal
Eecommendations were furnished to General Services Adminis-
tration on 28 applications submitted by the States and their politica
subdivisions to acquire Federal surplus real properties for public
park, recreation, and historic monument purposes. Of special sig-
nificance, are the applications of the State of California to acquire
as part of the proposed 6,000-acre Golden Gate Headlands State
Park on both sides of San Francisco Bay, 291 acres of the historic anc
scenic Forts Baker and Cronkhite in Marin County. The Service
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 367
now has compliance responsibility on a total of 205 properties
embracing 34,038 acres.
Recommendations also were furnished to the Bureau of Land Man-
agement on 62 similar applications to acquire public domain lands
for the same purpose.
The 1960 edition of State Parks — Areas, Acreages and Accommoda-
tions lists 2,589 State parks, monuments, historic sites, recreation
areas and other types of areas included in the State park systems
embracing almost 5y 2 million acres and administered by 99 agencies
in the 50 States. The tabulations give for each area the name, loca-
tion by county, acreage, and the availability of water recreation and
overnight and eating accommodations.
State Park Statistics, 1960 reports: (1) attendance of 259 million
including 20 million overnight guests, (2) expenditures of $56 mil-
lion for operation and maintenance and $31 million for land acquisi-
tion and improvements, (3) revenue from operations of nearly $23
million, and (4) 7,412 year-round and 10,125 seasonal personnel.
The interpretative program of the National Park Service continued
to render an educational service to ever-increasing numbers of visitors
to the parks and monuments, as well as to the country's newspapers,
magazines, and radio stations.
The program itself was improved by the opening of new visitor cen-
ters, which during the year saw a record number of visitors. The
latest audio- visual techniques are being developed to make more effec-
tive the presentation of the park story in these visitor centers. The
interpretative program teaches geology, natural history, history, and
archeology to the visitors of the parks and monuments. It contributes
substantially to the conservation movement in America. Interpreta-
tion becomes a more important phase of the National Park Service's
activities and operations from year to year.
Visitor center, exhibits, programs, and services for better under-
standing of the National Parks, have demonstrated their value in
helping visitors enjoy the Parks.
Six new visitor centers were opened to the public during the fiscal
year, including centers at Everglades National Park, Fla.; Great
Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee;
Mt. McKinley National Park, Alaska ; Death Valley National Monu-
368 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
ment, Calif. ; Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa ; and Wright
Brothers National Memorial, N.C.
Service to the Public
The interpretive program of guided trips and talks offered park
visitors by professional naturalists, historians, and archeologists, sup-
plemented by self-service facilities such as publications, museum
exhibits, roadside and trailside exhibits, signs, and markers, and
audiovisual presentations, both indoors and outdoors, was considerably
expanded during the 1961 fiscal year.
A significant increase in personal services is attributable to the
filling of 25 new interpretive positions. Eleven park areas, pre-
viously without an interpreter on the staff, were enabled to initiate
an interpretive program.
Some 49 nonprofit cooperating associations contributed $119,111.00
for aid to the National Park Service for research, equipment, books
and materials used in the interpretive program. These associations
produced 19 new interpretive publications, bringing the total to 190.
Roadside and Trailside Interpretation
Roadside interpretive exhibits, signs, and markers, and self -guided
trails were developed or expanded in many parks during the 1961
Parks where new roadside or wayside interpretive facilities were
installed include Great Smoky Mountains, Everglades, Crater Lake,
Mount McKinley, Olympic, Virgin Islands, and Yosemite National
Parks; Badlands, Effigy Mounds, George Washington Carver, and
Fort Frederica National Monuments ; Richmond National Battlefield
Park; Blue Ridge Parkway; and in a number of other areas of the
National Park System.
An innovation in outdoor interpretation is a self -guided underwater
trail at the Virgin Islands National Park, where swimmers follow
underwater labels that interpret marine features along the route.
Audio-Visual Planning and Installation
The trend toward greater use of interpretive audio-visual devices
continued during the year. Installations were made as follows:
Automatic slide/sound equipment in five Park visitor centers; self-
contained cabinet slide/sound projectors in four visitor centers ; audio-
visual equipment for five Park amphitheaters; 18 audio stations in
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 369
Conservation, protection, and restoration are important activities in units of the
National Park System. Here summer architectural students employed by the
Historic Structures Section of the National Park Service are working high on the
tower of Independence Hall, Independence National Historical Park in Phila-
370 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
nine Parks; one electric map with automatic recorded message; and
utilization of filmstrip in one automatic installation.
Significant in future planning were four custom-built, battery-
powered audio stations, now providing visitor-activated recorded
messages at such diverse spots as an elevated nature trail in the Ever-
glades, a mountain pass in Coronado overlooking the route followed
by Spanish conquistadores, an overlook at Bryce Canyon, and a view
point in Saguaro.
Another of the year's developments which may prove equally sig-
nificant is the use of motion picture animation techniques to bring
"life" to still photographs in the making of motion pictures. The
first sound motion picture production thus made — "The Lincoln
Country" — is proving vastly more effective than the former slide/
sound presentation at Lincoln's Birthplace, Kentucky.
Fort Sumter National Monument, S.C., converted a coldly func-
tional gun emplacement into an attractive museum. Eleven other
parks installed museums in their visitor centers. Fort Frederica,
Ga., placed weatherproof exhibit cases inconspicuously along the
streets of the colonial settlement so visitors could rebuild and repeople
the town in imagination as they explored the site.
Among historic structures carefully refurnished were Officer's
Quarters at Fort Laramie National Monument, Wyo., and the Maltese
Cross Cabin at Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park, N. Dak.
Regional offices have established clearing-house safeguards to assure
that park collections contain objects important for interpretation, and
to eliminate inappropriate specimens.
At Independence Hall National Historical Park in Philadelphia,
a great eagle painted on the ceiling in Congress Hall has been salvaged
and will be restored to its honored place. Workmen have also un-
covered the original fireplaces in the walls of the building. The ceiling
in Congress Hall was collapsing in the chamber that served as the
first home of the Senate of the United States. To preserve the intri-
cate and delicate plaster design of the ceiling tracery, photogram-
metry techniques were brought into play. Stereoscopic photos were
made, which permitted the architectural draftsmen to produce precise
drawings of the design. This means of making accurate and detailed
drawings opens exciting vistas for the historian, the architect and the
For example, architectural drawings of a church and steeple which
would take a crew an entire summer, with scaffolds and all the para-
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 371
phernalia such a structure would ordinarily require, can be accom-
plished with photogrammetry techniques for a portion of the cost and
in a fraction of the time. Stereoscopic pictures, with camera loca-
tions, angles and distance rigidly controlled, and skilled technicians
to compute the measurements with the help of precise mechanical
interpreters, tell more of a building's detail than the most careful
measurement by traditional methods.
For this reason, photogrammetry is also coming to be used when-
ever practicable in the Park Service's Historic American Buildings
Survey. The H.A.B.S., as the survey is more commonly abbreviated,
is a joint undertaking of the Park Service, the American Institute
of Architects and the Library of Congress, to enhance the cultural
life of the Nation by a comprehensive archive of historic architecture,
similar to those already existing in Europe. This past fiscal year
saw a gratifying increase in donations and fuller participation by
academic and professional organizations. The year's projects con-
tributed more than 300 sheets of measured drawings, 731 photographs
and 420 data pages.
The interrelationships and ecological requirements of park wildlife
received increasing study because a better understanding of these re-
quirements is basic to the fullest interpretation, protection, and utiliza-
tion by the public, of park values. Some major findings :
On Isle Royale National Park, following many years of severe
damage to the forest understory by an overpopulation of moose, a
balance has been restored by a number of preying wolves which arrived
In Death Valley National Monument, the interrelationship between
bighorn sheep, wild burros, and man has been more clearly revealed.
It had long been thought that burros which ran wild and multiplied
after being turned loose on the desert by prospectors, were driving the
native bighorn sheep from their ancestral watering places. This year
sheep and burros were found watering together in many areas without
conflict ; molestation and occupancy of water sources by man proved to
be the major factor in depleting the sheep.
Archeological, historical, biological, or geological research was con-
ducted in most of the National Parks and Monuments by Service per-
sonnel, cooperators, collaborators, contractors, or other interested
372 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
The quiet crisis of disappearing recreation lands has finally awakened Americans.
They are tired of going to crowded, overregulated parks. They want space and
they want quiet. These are other names for freedom.
Archeological research was carried out in 21 National Park Service
areas. Major projects were initiated at Everglades, Yosemite, Sequoia-
Kings Canyon, Olympic, Whitman, Grand Canyon, Appomattox Court
House, and were continued at Effigy Mounds and at Wetherill Mesa in
The service also carried on an extensive archeological salvage pro-
gram in 35 reservoir areas under cooperative agreements with the
Smithsonian Institution and 30 State and local institutions.
Biological research continued on arctic-alpine ecology at Rocky
Mountain, Grand Teton, and Mount Rainier. Ecological studies were
continued at Sequoia and Joshua Tree. Fisheries studies were con-
ducted at Olympic and Everglades. The Desert Bighorn study at
Death Valley was completed, while wildlife studies at Mount Mc-
Kinley, Grand Teton, Isle Royale, and Acadia were continued.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 373
In cooperation with the Department's Geological Survey, glacial
studies at Mount Rainier and Glacier were continued. Additional
geologic work was also done at Yellowstone, Wind Cave and Badlands.
Intensive research in all historical areas continued with special proj-
ects inaugurated at George Washington Carver and Dinosaur.
Increased public interest in the National Park System was reflected
throughout the year in a larger than ever demand for publications,
factual reports, maps, folders, and reprints of principal addresses by
Department and Park Service officials.
Some 11,314,000 free informational publications were produced and
more than 889,482 were sold by the Government Printing Office — yet
the demand far exceeded the supply.
As in previous years, handbooks on the historical significance and
natural history of park areas and various reports on the scientific find-
ings of researchers supplemented the free informational program.
Printing of foreign-language folders in Spanish, German, French,
and Russian was authorized for Independence National Historical
Park in Philadelphia.
National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings
The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, as part of
the Mission 66 program, completed inventories and studies of sites and
buildings in six periods of themes of American history. From these
studies, the Advisory Board of National Parks, Historic Sites, Build-
ings and Monuments recommended that 94 sites and structures be
classified as having exceptional values in illustrating and commemo-
rating the history of the United States under the terms of the Historic
Sites Act of 1935.
These classified sites were approved by the Department as eligible
of Registered National Historic Landmark status. This new program
is an outgrowth of the National Survey. It is designed to recognize
and encourage the preservation of sites and structures by State and
local agencies, historical societies, and individuals.
Recognition is accorded by the issuance of Landmark certificates and
small bronze markers. At the end of the fiscal year, 115 certificates
and 11 markers had been prepared. The Department does not bear
the expense of restoring or maintaining these Landmarks.
Cape Cod National Seashore not only has one of the finest beaches in the United
States but has an endless variety of recreation opportunities in its heath, marsh,
forests, and lakes. President Kennedy, on authorizing the establishment of the
Park, said that he hoped it would be one of a whole series of great seashore parks
for the use and benefit of all of our people.
Fiscal year 1961 produced 75,756,000 visits to the National Parks,
a rise of 6 percent over fiscal 1960. This may be compared with the
decade 1950-60 average of 6.7 percent annually, during which time the
population of the country rose at a yearly rate of 1.8 percent.
Camping continued to overtax facilities and exhibit shifts in pat-
terns. Of the 4,840,000 camper days recorded during calendar 1960,
14 percent were spent under overcapacity circumstances, compared
with 15 percent in the previous year. The trend toward trailer camp-
ing was evident. Trailer camping in 1960 rose to 26 percent of all
camping, compared with 23 percent in 1959.
Forest Fire Control
For the fourth successive year, the number of fires has increased.
Subnormal precipitations, dry fuels and other weather factors pro-
duced ideal burning conditions, especially in the western parks. There
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 375
were 540 fires, a substantial increase over the previous 5 -year average
Fire losses amounted to 8,896 acres against the previous 5-year
average of 7,109, but this loss is still less than the allowable burn
standard of one-tenth of 1 percent of the total area requiring protec-
tion from fire. Fire losses in four California national parks contained
87 percent of the total fire damage area. The ratio of man-caused fires
to the total number of fires decreased by about 7 percent over the
previous year. The safety record of no fatalities or serious injuries
The use of aircraft and aircraft-supported operations was expanded
over previous years and was instrumental in holding down damages
and costs. Fire control personnel had to be rapidly shifted between
parks and regions to man some of the larger fires. The Department
of Defense cooperated in the fire suppression activities by supplying
aircraft when commercial assistance could not be obtained.
Insect and Tree Disease Control
Control operations were expanded to combat outbreaks of bark
beetle infestations, particularly in the pine forests in Yosemite, Se-
quoia, Kings Canyon, Crater Lake, and Grand Teton National Parks.
The needleminer which is attacking lodgepole pine in Yosemite Na-
tional Park has a 2-year life cycle. Direct control to combat the
infestations in the moth-egg stage was increased.
The programs for controlling white pine blister rust infections were
reoriented. Ecological studies of the rust and the development of
an antibiotic permit deferment of control in some parks but requires
intensified control in those parks where standards of control are
higher. Actidione, an antibiotic for infections on western white pine,
is being used for all control projects where this tree species is present.
Reappraisal of wildlife management requirements and programs
revealed the need for increased emphasis on ecological investigations,
control of overpopulations, and many management oriented activ-
ities. Acadia National Park accomplished a desirable deer reduction.
An inventory of fish and wildlife management responsibilities in each
park was prepared with suggestions for effecting adequate manage-
ment program staffing.
Range ecology studies at Grand Teton National Park resulted in
the formulation of a program for the reduction of elk numbers this
376 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Park Rangers, staff foresters, fire control aids, blister rust workers,
and other protection technicians received a wide variety of intensive
protection training. The numerous facets of ranger activity assign-
ments require specialized emphasis on such subjects as visitor protec-
tion, forest and structural fire control, safety for park visitors and
park employees, search and rescue techniques, wildlife management,
law enforcement, and mountaineering.
The second water safety and rescue seminar — specializing in boats
and boat handling — was conducted at Lake Mead National Recreation
Area for 25 park rangers and 6 other Federal and State employees.
The National Park Service Training Center at Yosemite National
Park graduated 50 Service employees and a Navajo Tribal Parks
employee. The total number of graduates from the Training Center
during its 4 years of operation is now 203.
Results of a careful Service-wide reappraisal of the Mission 66
Development Program are reflected in the April 1961 edition of the
Control Schedules. This 215-page compendium of actual and pro-
jected construction and development cost data is revised annually to
reappraise the Mission 66 10-year development program and future
The latest edition provides a convenient financial summary, by indi-
vidual parks and construction categories, with summary cost columns
to show: (1) costs of the first 5 years of Mission 66 (1957-61) ; (2)
forecast of total Mission 66 costs; (3) annual cost projections for
years after 1966 through 1972; (4) 1973 and future years costs; and
(5) grand total costs.
In addition to the Mission 66 Control Schedules, a 6-year program
of public works projects, in compliance with Bureau of the Budget
requirements was prepared. This information covers all areas of
the Service, in alphabetical arrangement by State and county locations.
The Branch of Programs has developed procedures for preparing
and processing formalized programs for certain activities carried on
with annual operating appropriations. The results of this initial
activity were utilized in arriving at long-range program goals, as
shown in the current edition of the Mission 66 Control Schedules.
Further steps in application of programing principles are being
worked out and are expected to be put into operation during the next
Haleakala National Park on the island of Maui, 125 miles from Hawaii, was for-
merly part of Hawaii National Park but was established as a separate National
Park — the 30th — on July 1, 1961. The dormant volcano has a crater IV2 miles long,
IVl miles wide, and 21 miles around. The crater floor, 3,000 feet below the
summit, covers an area of 19 square miles.
As a result of a Task Force study, recommendation and subsequent
approval, maintenance activities in the Regional Offices are now on
a functional rather than a professional basis as heretofore.
In recommending the establishment of a Branch of Maintenance
in each Regional Office, the Task Force stated that a functional type
organization would pinpoint responsibility and thus the needed im-
petus would be provided to systematically and continuously assist
the parks in planning, developing, and carrying out the type of overall
maintenance program required to protect the Government's investment
and adequately serve the needs of the visitor.
Staffing levels commensurate with the workload in each Region have
been established and action has been taken to realign personnel to
378 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Thirteen concessions authorizations were negotiated, six of which
have been executed on behalf of the Government. Eight of those
negotiated included construction programs, with investments totaling
approximately $10,228,000. These will result in new and improved
facilities at Lake Mead, Shenandoah, Glen Canyon, Big Bend, Mam-
moth Cave, Isle Royale, Olympic, Yosemite, Petrified Forest, and
Blue Eidge Parkway.
Four prospectuses were issued soliciting offers for facilities at
Haleakala, Fort Sumter, Lake Mead, and Rocky Mountain. Five
offers were received as a result of the Fort Sumter prospectus, but none
resulted from the one issued for Haleakala. The Lake Mead and
Rocky Mountain ones are still outstanding.
Virginia Peaks of Otter, Inc., completed restaurants and service
stations at Whetstone Ridge and Otter Creek in Blue Ridge costing
about $200,000; Yosemite Park and Curry Company spent about
$500,000 in improvements in Yosemite; Fred Harvey completed new
facilities on the South Rim of Grand Canyon costing about $160,600 ;
and Virginia Sky-Line Company invested nearly $377,000 in new
facilities in Shenandoah. Concessioners also completed improve-
ments at Glacier, Grand Teton, Hawaii, Lake Mead, Lassen, National
Capital Parks, Rocky Mountain, and Yellowstone, totaling approxi-
The House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee issued a state-
ment confirming the concessions policies of the Service, and further
resolved that the policy of granting a preferential opportunity to
existing concessioners to negotiate a new contract, if service has been
satisfactory during the life of their expiring contracts, shall be in-
terpreted to apply to nonprofit distributing organizations.
Appropriations for the purchase of lands during fiscal year 1961
totaled $2,475,000, allocated as follows: $400,000, Civil War areas;
$500,000, Minute Man National Historical Park; $250,000, Independ-
ence National Historical Park; $540,000, Mammoth Cave National
Park; $275,000, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument; $100,000,
Petrified Forest National Monument; and $410,000 in other areas of
the National Park System. Some 26,450 acres were acquired by
purchase, donation, transfer, or exchange, of which 2,440 acres were
Bumside Bridge at Antietam National Battlefield Site is of both scenic and historic
interest and illustrates the Service's dedication to the conservation of the scenic,
scientific, and historic heritage of the United States for the benefit and inspiration
of its people.
Completed purchases and accepted options cover 2,830 acres of land
in Glacier, Mammoth Cave, Rocky Mountain, and Yosemite National
Parks ; Badlands, Black Canyon of the Gunnison, Capitol Reef, Cas-
tillo de San Marcos, Joshua Tree, and Petrified Forest National
Monuments ; Gettysburg National Military Park ; Manassas National
Battlefield Park; Fort Clatsop National Memorial; and Gloria Dei
National Historic Site.
The purchases of the Great Onyx and Crystal Caves in Mammoth
Cave National Park were the most significant acquisitions during the
Water Resources and Water Rights
The Department approved, with the concurrence of the Secretary
of Agriculture, the application of the city and county of San Fran-
cisco under the Raker Act of 1913 for a change in a right-of-way
location at the Hetch Hetchy project, Yosemite National Park and
Stanislaus National Forest. The change, as approved, will permit a
380 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
tunnel to be constructed between O'Shaughnessy Dam and Early In-
take on the north side of the Tuolumne River under appropriate stipu-
lations regarding the release of water to the stream for preservation
of fish life and esthetic values.
A major problem has arisen in southern Florida involving the
Everglades National Park as a result of the planning and develop-
ment of the southern Florida flood control project of the Corps of
Engineers. It will be imperative to provide a systematic release of
water to the park to preserve its natural conditions. Preliminary
discussions with the Corps of Engineers to achieve the desired results
were started this past year.
Design and Construction
At the outset of fiscal year 1961, more than $106 million was avail-
able for 1,365 projects for the construction programs of the National
Park Service, including balances from preceding years. This in-
creased to 1,559 projects at more than $108 million. By June 30
more than 88 percent of these funds were obligated and contracts
for 719 projects totaling more than $71 million were active. Four
hundred and thirty-eight projects totaling more than $21 million,
were completed. With the expanded construction programs 24 con-
tracts for professional and engineering services were consummated.
Roads and Trails
There were 125 miles of major road projects under construction at
a cost of $11,847,975 for 28 projects. Fourteen projects covering
over 52 miles of reconstruction and about one-half mile of new con-
struction were completed at a cost of $4,407,437. Also 17 projects
totaling 139 miles of reconstruction and 7 miles of new construction
were placed under contract at a cost of $7,716,625. Eleven miles of
the reconstruction were completed.
Completions included reconstruction of the Jackson Lake Road at
Grand Teton, the Bear Lake Cutoff at Rocky Mountain, three bridges
at Yellowstone, the East Rim Drive at Grand Canyon, two bridges
at Mount McKinley, a portion of the Newfound Gap at Great Smoky
Mountains, the Cape Royal Road at Grand Canyon, the Nisqually
River Bridge at Mount Rainier, and paving of the Tioga Road at
Larger projects placed under contract were the New Fremont
River Road at Capital Reef, reconstruction of the Chief Mountain
Road at Glacier, a portion of the park road at Mount McKinley, by-
The National Park Service is increasing the number of visitor centers where
audiovisual programs — employing improved electronic equipment — supplement
personal services to explain the natural or historic aspects of the park or monument
to the visitors.
pass road at Hawaii, Walnut Canyon Road at Carlsbad, and the final
portion of the Newfound Gap Road at Great Smoky Mountains.
The Cape Royal Road at Grand Canyon, the Two-Medicine Road at
Glacier, and the Arnica Creek-Bridge Bay portion of the Grand
Loop at Yellowstone, were completed.
Projects involving 164 minor roads and trails in 63 parks totaling
more than $6,800,000 were completed. Among these were rehabili-
tation of tour roads in Saratoga; walks, trails, and parking area at
Mammoth Cave ; the Painted Desert Road system in Petrified Forest ;
and the road system in the Grand development, Yellowstone. Park-
ing space and campground facilities were significantly increased.
A large number of projects were completed on the motor roads and
in adjoining recreational areas. The completions on roads repre-
sented 20 major contracts costing approximately $8,800,000, including
30 miles of paving, 46 miles of surface treatment, 30 miles of grading
and base course work, and 20 bridges and grade separations. A 14-
mile section of the Blue Hidge was opened near Roanoke and except
for a missing link of 15 miles, it is complete in Virginia. In North
382 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Carolina, 12 miles of paving was completed and except for 5% miles
travel is continuous for 96 miles from the State line to Asheville. A
new 13-mile section was opened where the Parkway soars to a climactic
four State view at an elevation of 5,820 feet.
The National Parkways construction program was concentrated on
additional visitor facilities and the provision of continuous travel.
The $16 million contract authorization provided the following: Blue
Ridge Parkway $4,058,300, Natchez Trace Parkway $4,574,000, Foot-
hills Parkway $3,075,200, Colonial Parkway $20,400, George Wash-
ington Memorial Parkway $3,537,500, Baltimore- Washington
Parkway $359,200, Palisades Parkway $175,000, and advance plan-
On the Natchez Trace remaining grading and several major bridges
were completed on the 165-mile unit between Jackson and Tupelo;
112 miles were paved. Public service features completed on the Blue
Ridge and Natchez Trace included picnic grounds, campground roads,
trails, comfort stations, and utility systems.
On June 30, there were 33 major contracts totaling approximately
$24,700,000 in process under the Bureau of Public Roads major roads
program, including 75 miles of final paving, 66 miles of grading and
base course work, 23 bridges and grade separations, 8 tunnels, and
other road work. About $10 million worth of construction is on the
Blue Ridge, $5,800,000 on Natchez Trace, and $6,700,000 on George
Washington Memorial Parkway.
Advisory services provided jointly by the Bureau of Public Roads
and the Service were started in Tennessee on the Great River Road.
This will be a mile-to-mile location and boundary report which will
allow the Mississippi River States to proceed with lands and access
control for protection of the Parkway corridor.
Visitor centers were completed at Everglades (where $33,000 was
spent to repair damage by Hurricane Donna), Devils Tower, Petri-
fied Forest, and Fort Vancouver ; four are under construction. Also
completed were a Sports Center at Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway.
One dormitory and 46 permanent and 33 seasonal Park residences
were completed. An additional 44 residences are under construction.
A $3,796,000 contract was awarded at Jefferson National Expansion
The National Park Service opened 10 new visitor centers to the public during the
budget year. Like this one at Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Caro-
lina, they are equipped with audio-visual and other display material to make the
presentation of the park story more effective and attractive to the ever-increasing
lumber of visitors.
Memorial for the building of the grand steps and side steps to the
overlook structures, foundations for the Gateway Arch and Visitor
Center, and relocation of Levee Street and the railroad tracks east
>f the Memorial. Including Federal, city, and Terminal Railroad
funds, $23 million has been authorized for the Memorial. It is
scheduled for completion in 1964.
Utilities and Miscellaneous Structures
The Service continued its expansion of public use facilities and
niscellaneous structures; such as sand stabilization at Cape Hatteras;
Iredging lagoon at Bridge Bay, Yellowstone; and grounds improve-
nent at Independence. A total of 146 projects in 115 parks totaling
nore than $3 million were completed. Also 92 water and sewer proj-
ects in 74 parks, totaling over $5 million were completed, notably the
384 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
water and sewer system in Grand Canyon, which included a 3 million-
gallon water storage facility ; a new water supply system at Petrified
Forest; and additional utilities in Yellowstone totaling more than
Sixteen power or communication projects in 23 parks were com-
pleted. Outstanding were the leased two-way radio systems at
Natchez Trace at a cost of $525,000, a similar system at Blue Ridge,
$452,000, and another at St. Johns, Virgin Islands, $47,000.
In keeping with the Service's objective of providing at least some
visitor use facilities in parks immediately after establishment, good
progress has been made toward the development of Master Plans for
new parks. Construction of facilities in conformance with the Mastei
Plans has already been started or scheduled in Horseshoe Bend, Pea
Ridge, Wilsons Creek, Russell Cave, Flaming Gorge, and Glen Canyon
National Capital Parks
National Capital Park facilities in fiscal 1961 were used by an
estimated total of nearly 141 million persons. Of this figure, more
than 514 million were counted at the five major memorials. There
were 366 special events.
A new C&O Canal barge, more authentic historically, with improved
public address system and passenger comforts, replaced the old barge
in May. Visitor hours at the Washington Monument and Lincoln
Memorial were extended. In its first year of operation, 125,000 par-
ticipants used the Rock Creek Nature Center, overtaxing facilities in
May, June, and October.
Operation of the 194-man United States Park Police force helped
to cut traffic accidents and crime incidence. New uniforms, high visi-
bility outer-garments for traffic control, an up-to-date "mobile
relay" radio system, and intensive training all contributed to the
With the worst winter in two decades, National Capital Parks used
4,600 tons of sand, 79 tons of calcium chloride, and incurred the ex-
pense of $100,000 for patching potholes in park roads caused by freez-
ing and thawing. Research continues on Dutch elm tree diseases and
turf improvement. Propagation of plants included 18,000 at nurs-
eries and greenhouses and 3,900 waterlilies and lotuses at Kenilworth,
Some 60,000 plants were used in display beds.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Zrowds of interested visitors to Harpers Ferry National Monument gather around
i park historian for information and guidance — typical of visitor activity in most
>/ the historic sites and battlefields being administered by the National Park
Mission 66 Improvements
Noteworthy among these were the Harry T. Thompson Boat Center,
'econstruction of Bingham Drive in Rock Creek Park, improvements
o Pulaski Park, new tennis courts in East Potomac Park, exterior
>ainting of Executive Mansion, campfire circle at Catoctin, and a
ire house at Prince William Forest Park.
Contract work for fiscal 1961 shows: 21 contracts completed at a
:ost of $1,172,151; 11 contracts in progress at a cost of $2,795,945;
md 16 contracts to be awarded before June 30 at an estimated cost
>f $1,507,540, for a grand total of $5,475,636.
Important planning work in progress includes the Park Operations
3uilding, restoration of Ford's Theater, and development of Greenbelt
Pottawatomie County in northeastern Kansas is the location of a proposed Prairi
National Park — a plan to conserve a sizable representative section of the prairi
as nearly as possible in its original condition.
Planning and Land Acquisition
Legislation was introduced for (1) acquiring 790 acres at Grea
Falls, Va., now on a 50-year lease; (2) acquiring Mockley Point are*
opposite Mount Vernon ; (3) extending George Washington Memoria
Parkway from Mount Vernon to Woodlawn; and (4) establishing
Board to screen proposed memorials in National Capital Parks areas
Added to park lands were 388.63 acres valued at $1,188,512. Lost hy
transfer or sale were 5.03 acres assessed at $511,591.
Budget and Finance
The Service's financial position was further strengthened througl
appropriation increases for the 1961 fiscal year. There follows a com
parison of the 1961 appropriations with those for 1960 :
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Campers at the Elkmont Campground in the Great Smokies pick their own spot
and register by inserting an "occupied by" card in the proper card holder on the
big board. On leaving the campers remove their card and the board once again
shows a "vacancy."
Appropriation item Fiscal year Fiscal year Increase
Management and protection $16, 772, 000 $20, 509, 000 $3, 737, 000
Maintenance and rehabilitation of phys-
ical facilities 14, 435, 000 15, 800, 000 1, 365, 000
General administrative expenses 1,475,000 1,581,000 106,000
Construction 16, 735, 000 21, 528, 000 4, 793, 000
Construction (liquidation of contract
authorization) 30,000,000 30,000,000
Total cash appropriations 79, 417, 000 89, 418, 000 10, 001, 000
onstruction (amount by which roads
and trails and parkways contract au-
thorization exceeds cash appropri-
ation) 6,000,000 4,000,000 -2,000,000
Total new obligational authority— 85, 417, 000 93, 418, 000
Of the total increases reflected in the foregoing, $1,576,000 was for
ncreased salary costs as authorized by Public Laws 85-584 and 86-
>68; $1,079,000 was required to meet unusual emergency costs incident
;o forest fire suppressions, building fire losses, and storm damages;
ind $2,953,000 for construction at Jefferson National Expansion
Memorial. The remainder, $4,393,000, was for strengthening the
various Service programs, including Mission 66 development.
388 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Substantial progress was made during this fiscal year in achieving
the desired 3-year audit cycle for approximately 200 concessioners,
208 area and field finance offices, and 48 natural history and history
associations cooperating with and rendering aid to the National Park
Service. Approximately 50 percent of the field finance offices, 25
percent of the areas and concessioners, and 30 percent of the cooperat-
ing associations were audited during the fiscal year. In addition,
special financial examinations were conducted covering prospective
concessioners, an electric power company, and certain entrance station
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 O — 634555
ITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Stewart L. Udall, Secretary
NATIONAL PARK SERV
Conrad L. Wirth, Director
National Park Service
Conrad L. Wirth, Director
Enjoyment of A Heritage; Protection of A
At the White House Conference on Conservation last spring,
^resident John F. Kennedy said: "I don't think there is anything
hat could occupy our attention with more distinction than trying to
>reserve for those who come after us this beautiful country which
ve have inherited."
In the spirit of this message, and during a year in which Secretary
>f the Interior Stewart L. Udall called for a national conservation
effort "to secure an adequate resources base for the future, and to
)lan the use of our land resources so that material progress and the
Teation of a life-giving environment will go hand in hand," the
Department's National Park Service:
— Established a close working relationship with the new
Recreation Advisory Council and the recently established Bureau
of Outdoor Recreation in the common mission to bring about
improved interagency cooperation and to develop coordinated
national outdoor recreation policies.
— Saw three new areas added to the National Park System:
Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts; City of Refuge
National Historical Park, Hawaii; and Buck Island Reef National
Monument near St. Croix in the Virgin Islands.
— Recorded over 82,300,000 visits to national parks and related
areas, representing an increase of 8.6 percent over the previous
— Observed a 4.4-percent increase in camping, with over
5,051,000 camper days recorded.
80 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
— Entered into a contract with the National Academy of
Sciences, initiating a study of natural history research needs of
the national parks. The Academy, on the basis of its findings,
will advise and make recommendations for a research program
designed to provide data for effective protection, management,
development and interpretation of the national parks, and to
encourage greater use of the national parks for basic research.
— Constructed 9 new visitor centers and installed 16 new
museums in parks throughout the country — permitting a better
program of interpretation.
— Continued efforts to round out a National Park System that
will be adequate in meeting the needs of the Nation — now and
in the future — with major emphasis and priority on Secre-
tary Udall's campaign to preserve some of America's few remain-
ing undeveloped natural areas along seashores, lakeshores, and
— Was tremendously encouraged by President Kennedy's
special message on conservation urging the Congress to take
"favorable action on legislation to create Point Reyes National
Seashore in California; Great Basin National Park in Nevada;
Ozark Rivers National Monument in Missouri; Sagamore Hill
National Historic Site in New York; Canyonlands National
Park in Utah; Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in
Michigan; Prairie National Park in Kansas; Padre Island National
Seashore in Texas; a National Lakeshore Area in Northern
Indiana; and Ice Age National Scientific Reserve, Wisconsin."
— Worked with the Department's other agencies in support of
the broad principles of wilderness legislation now before the
— Cooperated in advanced planning in anticipation of the
passage of youth employment legislation which would establish
a Youth Conservation Corps designed to offer outdoor employ-
ment in the Nation's parks, forests, and other public lands.
— Stepped up its Mission 66 park improvement program.
— Completed a 5-year survey of existing and potential parks
and related types of recreation areas. In a State-by-State investi-
gation conducted in cooperation with the States, 4,800 existing
and 2,800 potential parks and recreation areas were identified.
These findings were turned over to the Department's Bureau of
— Increased the use of helicopters to provide better adminis-
tration, maintenance and protection, especially in mountainous
and otherwise inaccessible back-country areas where this type of
equipment offers the only fast and reliable methods for emergency
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 81
rescue missions, combating forest fires and other forestry work
such as control of insect infestation and disease.
— Participated in the Federal and State aerial reconnaissance
of storm damage in six States following the disastrous storm of
March 6 and 7, 1962, along the Atlantic coast. Shore damage
along the barrier beaches was particularly severe at shorefront
developments of Atlantic seashore resorts. The Service published
a report which explored the question of dedicating shoreline por-
tions of barrier beaches to public use and recommended various
means for prevention of the recurrence of such devastation to
private property along barrier beaches in the future.
— Welcomed the addition of more women to the uniformed
staff of the National Park System as interpretive specialists.
— Cosponsored the First World Conference on National Parks,
Seattle, Wash., June 30-July 7, 1962, in cooperation with the In-
ternational Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN), the Natural Resources Council of America,
and other United Nations organizations and Federal agencies.
Representatives from 63 foreign countries were guests of the
National Park Service at Mount Rainier, Olympic, Yellowstone,
and Grand Teton National Parks.
— Placed special emphasis during the year on interpretive work
in Civil War areas of the National Park System to meet the im-
pact of increased visits engendered by Civil War centennial
observances sponsored by State and local organizations. Many
special exhibits were prepared in visitor centers of the National
Park System, and the Service cooperated in many special com-
memorative programs such as the reenactment of the Rattle of
The National Park System preserves physical evidences of the
growth of a magnificent and fruitful Nation. It is no wonder — as we
come increasingly to grips with the pressures of our modern world —
that Americans turn to their heritage for a renewal of spiritual strength
and pioneering determination.
Today, Americans are crowding the highways and visiting the
parks and recreational areas of the country as never before in history.
Yearly visits to the national parks have leaped from 22 million only
15 years ago to more than 80 million last year — and the demands of
the public for information about the places they visit have increased in
the same ratio.
82 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
A new emphasis toward meeting the needs of American and foreign
friends visiting the national parks is evidenced in the interpretation of
these areas through audiovisual services, museums, visitor centers,
informative publications, guided trails, and campfire talks.
Emphasis has also been placed on keeping up with the demands for
photographic services to supply the requirements of newspapers,
magazines, television, and other public relations media.
Our responsibility is not only to the millions who visit the parks,
but also to the many more millions who are unable to see the wonders
themselves and must rely on the printed word and pictures.
Publication and Service Programs
Emphasis to date in the publications program has been to produce
folders on each of the respective areas of the National Park Service.
But more and more, Americans are demanding additional informa-
tional material. In 1962, the Service printed 4,409,000 copies of 165
free informational publications for the various areas, plus 145,000
copies of 5 general free informational publications. The present publi-
cations program provides approximately one folder for every six
A Division of Extension Services was established during the year to
provide staff guidance and assistance in connection with Service-spon-
sored special public events, dedications, observances, and meetings,
as well as Service participation in public meetings sponsored by other
organizations. The Division also provides liaison services with con-
servation and education groups, universities and schools, and is re-
sponsible for developing and carrying out public information programs
for needed park resources protection measures.
Requests for National Park Service photographs rose 40 percent
during the year, mirroring the interest in Secretary UdalFs proposals
for new areas for the National Park System. More than 10,000 prints
of photographs were loaned upon request for use by various informa-
tion media and in educational programs.
The trend toward greater use of audiovisual devices in the interpre-
tive and educational program of the Service accelerated tremendously.
Included in the year's accomplishments were :
— the completion of 10 amphitheaters,
— installation of 51 audio stations,
— installation of 17 automatic slide/sound projection systems
in visitor centers,
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 83
— installation of public announcement systems in four visitor
— addition of 17 cabinet projector installations utilizing cap-
— construction of two automatic electric maps with synchro-
— equipping of two visitor center auditoriums for "live"
— improvement of the program for five existing installations.
Park interpretation in foreign language continued. A captioned
slide presentation in the Spanish language was installed alongside a
similar English version at San Juan National Historic Site, Puerto
Rico. The enthusiastic reception being given the foreign language
tape recordings by foreign visitors to the Liberty Bell in Independence
Hall, Philadelphia, suggests that such service for foreign visitors
should be considered for other areas as well.
A Division of International Cooperation was established in response
to the growing interest of foreign visitors in America's national parks —
evidenced, during the year, by 2,100 letters of inquiry from abroad
and by more than a thousand foreign visitors who were received by or
had made personal contact with various staff members of the National
In cooperation with the International Union for the Conservation
of Nature and Natural Resources (1UCN), the Natural Resources
Council of America, and other United Nations organizations and Fed-
eral agencies, the National Park Service cosponsored the First World
Conference on National Parks held in Seattle, Wash., June 30-July
7, 1962. The meeting, which had as its theme, "National Parks Are
of International Significance," was attended by more than 300 pro-
fessional park people representing some 63 nations throughout the
The basic purpose of the meeting was to further international
coordination of world conservation efforts and to encourage further
the establishment of new parks and reserves throughout the world.
Conservation, Interpretation, and Use
The Service reorganization during the fiscal year brought about
a gathering of staff divisions concerned primarily with actual park
operational activities into a single organizational group under the
84 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
supervision of Assistant Director of Conservation, Interpretation, and
Use. This brought into close association the interrelated functions
of maintenance, protection, interpretation, visitor use, research, and
A major objective common to most legislation related to the
National Park Service places emphasis on preservation from injury
and spoliation; conserving the scenery and the natural and historic
objects and the wildlife therein for the benefit and enjoyment of the
people now and in the future.
Conserving these values and assuring the welfare of park visitors
required positive protection and carefully regulated use.
This bull elk died from starvation in Yellowstone National Park. The
calf in the background is only hours away from death. Overpopulation of
elk in the park destroyed the vegetative cover and opened the range to heavy
erosion. Quick action in reducing elk populations strengthened the herd
and protected park values.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 85
Forests, Soils and Water
Forest fire control efforts reached an alltime high in fiscal year 1962.
Alert and trained fire crews and the expanded use of aircraft achieved
early control of many fires under hazardous conditions. In the
first half of 1962 drought conditions prevailed in the Southeast.
Halfway through its fire season by the end of fiscal year 1962, Ever-
glades National Park had 20 fires, almost double the 10-year average
of 1 1 fires. The Shark Valley fire in Everglades, largest fire in Service
history and originating outside the park, burned from May 15 to
June 20, 1962, over an area of 184,544 acres — 77,664 acres of this was
parkland. Major control projects were conducted to combat out-
breaks of western pine beetles in Lassen Volcanic, Yosemite, Sequoia,
and Kings Canyon; mountain pine beetles in Grand Teton; lodgepole
pine needle miner in Yosemite; and gypsy moth in Acadia. Programs
for control of white pine blister rust through eradication of the alter-
nate host and the use of antibiotics were continued in 10 parks.
Soil and water conservation measures to restore deteriorated lands
were carried out in 20 parks. Management controls were increased
to prevent destruction of fragile meadows and vegetative cover
types in the high mountains. Range grazing was reduced by 800
animal unit months in the western parks. An AUM (animal unit
month) is based on the amount of food (grazing) required to feed one
cow or five sheep for 1 month in a particular location, which may
vary in carrying capacity, and which, in turn, depends upon climate,
soil, and other growing conditions. The total grazing in 18 parks
was 85,342 AUM's. Pasturing to maintain scenes in historical parks
required 24,209 AUM's.
There are very few places in the world today other than in national
parks where opportunities are available for the public to observe and
photograph wildlife under natural conditions. To insure that public
enjoyment continues, wildlife management programs are directed at
attaining an optimum relationship between all animals consistent
with the native flora and in harmony with the conservation of other
Increased bear-management programs this year resulted in a
significant reduction of personal injuries and property damage to the
visitors. Studies of both grizzly and black bears continued in
Studies at Grand Teton National Park resulted in recommendations
for an elk-management program in portions of that park. Public
hunters were deputized to participate in the 1961 program under the
86 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Wildlife management programs of the National Park Service are directed
at attaining an optimum relationship between all animals consistent with the
native flora and in harmony with the conservation of other park features.
In Everglades National Park, Fla., above, one can see and photograph
alligators in their natural habitat.
provisions of Public Law 787 and removed 278 elk. Cooperative elk
studies with State and other Federal agencies were developed in
Rocky Mountain and Yellowstone National Parks.
Other elk-management programs were conducted in Yellowstone,
Glacier, and Rocky Mountain. The outstanding management pro-
gram for the year was the successful removal of 4,555 elk from the
northern Yellowstone elk herd by park rangers. The overpopulation
of elk had already driven out two other species, the beaver and the
Acadia, Grand Canyon, Mammoth Cave, and Sequoia and Kings
Canyon carried on limited deer-management programs. Wind Cave,
Yellowstone, and Grand Teton disposed of 237 surplus buffalo.
Death Valley, Lake Mead, Great Smoky Mountains, and Hawaii
Volcanoes conducted management programs directed at control of
feral burros, pigs, goats, and boars.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 87
Fishery studies were carried on in cooperation with the Depart-
ment's Fish and Wildlife Service in Yellowstone, Rocky Mountain,
Mount Rainier, Olympic, and Isle Roy ale. Seventeen areas carried
on stocking programs.
The values and purposes of the national parks were explained to
an increasing number of visitors by the addition of new visitor centers,
roadside and trailside signs and facilities, publications, and personnel.
In recognition of an obligation to provide equal opportunities for
women, the Service welcomed the addition of more women this year
to the uniformed staff of the National Park System as interpretive
A new venture began with authorization of sound and light pro-
grams for Independence Hall in Philadelphia and for Castillo de
San Marcos National Monument in St. Augustine, Fla. Modeled
after the spectacular night programs presented first at the Castle
of Chambord and Palace of Versailles in France and now widely
given throughout Europe, they offer a dramatic presentation of
history, using controlled light and recorded stereophonic sounds,
narrative, and dialog. The first such program in this country began
at Independence Hall on July 4, 1962, followed by that at the Castillo
later in the summer.
Nine new visitor centers were opened: Big Bend National Park,
Tex.; Petrified Forest National Monument, Ariz.; Great Sand Dunes
National Monument, Colo.; Homestead National Monument, Nebr.;
Fort Donelson National Military Park, Tenn.; Gettysburg National
Military Park, Pa.; Saratoga National Historical Park, N.Y.; Fort
Vancouver National Historic Site, Wash.; and Natchez Trace Park-
way, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama.
Sixteen parks installed museums — seven in new visitor centers,
five in enlarged or remodeled ones, and four in existing buildings.
More than 300 exhibits were installed in visitor center museums from
coast to coast to help interpret the varied stories our parks have
An example is the remodeled center in Fredericksburg, Va., which
shows how a Confederate officer lived during a hard winter of the
Civil War, complete with folding camp cot, writing desk and other
paraphernalia of the period. In the new visitor center at Great
88 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Sand Dunes, an exhibit uses animated diagrams to show how sand
moves to form the dunes.
Another, at the Homestead center, features a unique cold-roller
mangle which used large rocks to provide the weight needed for the
pioneer mother to iron the family wash. A slide-sound program
accompanies the machine to explain how she used it. Eight scale
dioramas, from Saratoga, N.Y., to Fort Vancouver, Wash., capture
some of the great moments in our history.
The Service participated in the White House Historical Association
program by working with the Smithsonian to provide exhibits on the
development of the Executive Mansion.
Parks have added many fine Museum specimens. These include a
rare German astrolobe by Johann Krabbe, dated 1582, donated to the
collections of Fort Caroline, Fla.; an outstanding group of Spanish
arms added to the holdings of Tumacacori, Ariz.; military uniforms and
flags from the Spanish Army Museum for Castillo de San Marcos,
Fla.; and two Congressional Medals of Honor for display at the
Chancellorsville and Stones River, Tenn., centers.
The Service has continued its program of preserving specimens,
paintings, and furnishings in the collections of the parks. It completed
one of the largest such projects undertaken, the painstaking restoration
and rehanging of the famed Gettysburg Cyclorama in the new visitor
center. The magnificent painting, 353 feet in circumference and 27
feet high, serves as the centerpiece for an inspiring program, supported
by sound effects and an inspirational narrative.
Roadside and Trailside Interpretation
Roadside interpretive facilities were developed or substantially
improved in 17 scenic-scientific parks and in 16 historic ones. The
installation of interpretive signs, markers, and trails along the Tioga
Road in Yosemite typifies effective ' 'self-service' ' interpretation along
Coordinated planning with Service architects and landscape archi-
tects has produced the Lee's Hill Shelter panels, Fredericksburg, Va.,
and the High Water Mark Tour exhibits, Gettysburg, Pa. Greater
use of more durable materials, like metal photos, brought encouraging
results in on-site exhibits.
While self-service interpretation was improved and expanded on a
wide front, the program of conducted trips and talks was also increased.
In Yosemite National Park, naturalist-led High Sierra 7-day hikes
were resumed after 20 years. Permanent and seasonal interpretive
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 89
Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall examines a statue of Theodore
Roosevelt with Oscar Strauss, president of the Theodore Roosevelt Association,
at the Roosevelt Birthplace, New York City. The building is an area
recommended as a national historic site.
staffs were enlarged and 13 new amphitheaters and campfire circles
were completed, resulting in an expansion of evening programs in
parks where visitors stay overnight.
90 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
An astro lobe made, signed, and dated by Johann Krabbe in 1582, was recently
acquired by the National Park Service. An unusually fine specimen contain-
ing much astronomical detail, it is believed to be the only 16th century astro-
lobe in the Western Hemisphere heavy enough to have been used for naviga-
tion. Purchased and donated anonymously, it will be exhibited at Fort
Caroline National Memorial, Fla.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 91
The House of Representatives in Congress Hall, Independence
National Historical Park, Philadelphia, has been refurnished to the
period of the 1790's when it resounded with the debates of legislators
of a young nation. A Federal eagle, painted on the ceiling of the
Senate Chamber in Congress Hall, painstakingly removed last year,
has been restored and replaced.
The restoration program of Fort Laramie, Wyo., has continued
with the refurnishing of the Sutler's Store and a second officers'
Some 53 nonprofit cooperating associations contributed $169,941
for aid to the National Park Service for research, equipment, books,
and materials used in the interpretive program. These associations
produced 29 new publications for sale in the areas. A full-color
publication, "Jamestown to Yorktown From Settlement to Nation-
hood," has won two national awards. "History of the United States
Flag" has received national recognition. Both were produced by the
Eastern National Park & Monument Association. "Mammals of the
Southwest Mountains and Mesas," was published by Southwestern
Historical research studies, 46 in all, were completed during 1962 by
Service historians. "Puerto Rico and the Elizabethan Age: An
Historical Analysis of the Attack by the Earl of Cumberland Against
the Island of Puerto Rico," expanded our knowledge of San Juan
National Historic Site. Other notable studies covered such subjects
as restoration of the Russian Blockhouse at Sitka, Alaska; General
Andrew Jackson's "Mud Rampart" defense line at the Battle of New
Orleans. Twenty-two studies relating to the Civil War were com-
pleted during its second centennial year and included a study of "Clara
Barton at Antietam."
Two historians were sent to Spain during the year to procure his-
torical data from Spanish archival sources and to purchase, in part
with donated funds, historic objects and specimens needed for museum
purposes at San Juan, Castillo de San Marcos, and Fort Raleigh.
Archeological research was carried on in 31 areas of the system,
the largest program to date. Major projects were initiated at Cape
92 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Cod, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and others continued at Acadia,
Grand Portage, Independence, and Hopewell Village. Historical
archeology conducted in seven areas supplemented and verified
historical records. Historic objects were found in some primarily
prehistoric sites, as at Ocmulgee, filling in knowledge of early European
contact with the Indians. At Isle Royale, a survey is providing im-
portant data on aboriginal and early historic sites.
The Service has been vigilant to prevent destruction of archeological
remains that might be lost through construction in areas of the system.
During the year a major salvage project was initiated at Ocmulgee
where Interstate Highway 16 will cross the monument. It was
financed by the State of Georgia at a cost of $155,000, reimbursed by
the Bureau of Public Roads.
The Wetherill Mesa project passed the halfway point. Mine sites
which present a thorough coverage of the Indians who lived at Mesa
Verde are being excavated. For the fourth year, the National Geo-
Archeologists salvage prehistoric artifacts and scientific information from a
5,000-year-old Indian campsite near the new Red Willow Dam in Nebraska,
while cooperative construction crews work around them to shape the new
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 93
graphic Society donated $50,000. It is one of the major endeavors of
New World archeology, matching in scope, duration, and financial
support the most ambitious past undertakings.
Salvage Archeology in River Basins
The Service continued its extensive salvage program in reservoir
areas with the cooperation of Federal, State, and local organizations.
There were 62 salvage projects in 35 States with 34 cooperating insti-
tutions. The Smithsonian Institution had 3 field parties in the
Missouri River basin in the fall, and 16-18 work crews for the season
beginning June 1962.
The University of Utah, Museum of Northern Arizona, University
of Colorado, and Museum of New Mexico cooperated with the Service
on the Upper Colorado River project, conducting surveys and exca-
vations in Glen Canyon, Fontenelle, Flaming Gorge, and Navajo
Reservoirs, and the Blue Mesa unit of the Curecanti project.
The University of Texas excavated in Amis tad (Diablo) and McGee
Bend Reservoirs and surveyed Toledo Bend, Columbus Bend, and
Livingstone. Work continued at John Day Reservoir by the Uni-
versity of Oregon, and at Walter F. George Reservoir by the Univer-
sities of Georgia and Alabama.
Secretary Udall secured the assistance of the National Academy of
Sciences in planning and further broadening the National Park
Service's proposed comprehensive research program. A new com-
prehensive natural history research program for the national parks —
endorsed by the Secretary's Advisory Board on National Parks,
Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments — was launched, under which
the Service considers research as a comprehensive system-oriented
program rather than a piecemeal, problem-oriented series of projects.
Since knowledge obtained through research is equally important to
protection, development, park use, wildlife management, and inter-
pretation, the new program will include periodic reappraisals of
ecological conditions to determine whether changes are needed in
management practices, to identify and correct ecological damage
before it can reach an irreversible stage, and to ascertain the need for
additional specific research.
To assist in carrying our these objectives, the Academy, in coopera-
tion with the Department of the Interior, selected an advisory com-
mittee of the country's leading scientists.
The biological research program produced two outstanding books:
"A Naturalist in Alaska" and "The Bighorn of Death Valley." The
94 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
latter publication is a revival of the National Park Service Fauna
Series on natural history research.
Outstanding progress was made in research on the interrelationships
of wolf, beaver, and moose at Isle Royale. Cooperative research in
the Yellowstone Lake fisheries and marine research in the Virgin
Islands were completed.
An analysis of water-supply needs for preserving the ecology of
Everglades National Park was undertaken by the University of
Miami, which also continued its research into the dependence of com-
mercial fish populations on park waters. Another research project
showed that tree invasions of meadows on the floor of Yosemite Valley
are natural, unlike forest invasions at higher altitudes which other
research has shown to be caused by human interference.
Progress continued on studies of the survival and natural propaga-
tion requirements of the Giant Sequoia and on the ecological require-
ments of the rare Kaibab squirrel in Grand Canyon. In Grand
Teton and Yellowstone, in cooperation with the Montana Cooperative
Wildlife Research Unit, transistorized radio transmission sets were
attached by collars to grizzly bears to trace their activities.
Extensive geological research was accomplished in the national
parks. Studies of hydrothermal features and phenomena in Yellow-
stone, which were stepped up following the Hebgen Earthquake of
1959, were continued in cooperation with the Department's Geological
Excellent progress was made on continuing or recurring projects
including glacial studies in Glacier, Mount Rainier, Olympic and
Sequoia and Kings Canyon; volcanological investigations in Hawaii
volcanoes; and studies of geology and ecology at Great Sand Dunes.
The Department has approved a program of identification, evalua-
tion, selection and registration of nationally significant geologic and
Ruins stabilization crews from the Southwest Archeological Center
worked in eight sites. The Wetherill Mesa project did stabilization
in conjunction with excavation. Other stabilization at Mesa Verde
included the spectacular pinning of a free-standing arch to the cliff
above Spruce Tree House, and the digging of a 300-foot tunnel under
Cliff Palace to drain excessive moisture.
Historic Sites, Buildings, and Landmarks
Substantial progress was made in the National Survey of Historic
Sites and Buildings, which completed the following studies: " Political
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 95
A National Park Service archeologist views a mass display of prehistoric
Indian pottery recovered from the Wetherill Mesa excavations at Mesa Verde
National Park. Study and analysis of these artifacts will shed new light on
the life of Indians who made them.
and Military Affairs, 1830-1860", " Transportation and Communica-
tion", and "Dutch and Swedish Exploration and Settlement." To
date, 23 studies have been completed, leaving 17 to be done. Of
these, nine are underway. A volume entitled "Road to Revolution:
Virginia's Rebels from Bacon to Jefferson, 1676-1776" was published.
By the end of the fiscal year, 311 sites were classified as possessing
exceptional value and eligible for registered national historic land-
mark status. Under the registry, 179 certificates and 77 bronze
plaques have been issued. The landmark program has been enthusi-
astically received by the public, with formal ceremonies being held in
connection with the majority of certificate and plaque presentations.
In a number of cases, such as Graham Cave in Missouri and Fort
Robinson, Nebr., landmark status has expedited or encouraged acqui-
sition of sites by States or preservation organizations for public use.
This is one of the purposes of the registry.
The National Park Service is emphasizing the need to protect park
values rather than relying only on the rigid enforcement of laws.
96 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Civil War reenactments and exhibits were part of the interpretive work in the
Civil War areas of the Park Service during the first year of the Civil War
centennial observances. The first reenactment took place at Manassas
National Battlefield Park, Va., on July 21, 1961.
This emphasis contributes to visitor enjoyment and accomplishes the
protective function in a manner that creates a "park atmosphere."
No one likes to go to an overregulated park. However, protection
against vandalism and other violations which damage the parks for
future users is always necessary.
The numerous facets of ranger activity assignments require special-
ized emphasis on such subjects as visitor protection, forest and
structural fire control, safety of park visitors and park employees,
search-and-rescue techniques, wildlife management, law enforcement,
Training of ranger services and supporting personnel at all levels
in the skills of park and visitor protection, wildlife management, and
emergency operations were expanded and involved more than 2,000
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
New visitor centers were constructed in nine National Park Service areas.
One of these was dedicated at Homestead National Monument, Nebr., on
June 10, 1962.
The training center at Yosemite provides two 3-month courses
each year for newly appointed uniformed employees. The curriculum
includes Service history, policies, objectives, organization, and field
operations. Initiated in 1957, it has graduated 254. In 1963, the
training center will move to a special facility now under construction
at Grand Canyon.
Cooperation with Federal and other organizations has been ex-
panded in relation to park use. Primarily concerned were activities
relating to water recreation, law enforcement, regulations, moun-
taineering, winter use, camping, conservation and preservation of
resources. Two park rangers toured seven Europlan countries as
part of a team in promoting the " Visit USA" program. Millions of
Europeans learned something of the significance of the National
Park System and were invited to enjoy with the people of the United
States these areas of national and international interest.
Ranger services in cooperation with other Federal bureaus organ-
ized, coordinated, and conducted a pilot field program for 10 African
college students. These students, potential leaders of new African
nations, were acquainted with the principles of resource conservation
and management as practiced by the Department.
98 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
The National Park System preserves outstanding scenic, scientific, and his-
toric areas of the Nation ^for the present and future generations." Olympic
National Park's Delabarre Glacier, above, is an outstanding example of
preservation of a scenic area.
Concessioners in several areas invested substantial amounts in
expanding and improving their overnight accommodations and
rehabilitating existing facilities. The most important improvements
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 99
were made by the concessioners as follows: South Rim of Grand
Canyon, $372,000; Sequoia and Kings Canyon, $101,000; Shenandoah,
$144,000; and Yosemite, $351,000. Projects by the concessioners are
either under way or being planned in Big Bend, Everglades, Mammoth
Cave, and Olympic National Parks, on the Blue Ridge Parkway, and
in Lake Mead National Recreation Area.
The District of Columbia Stadium, on lands administered by the
National Park Service, was dedicated and placed in use during the
year. The stadium is managed by the District of Columbia Armory
Board under contract with the Department of the Interior.
Concession facilities at Cape Hatteras, which were demolished by
Atlantic tidal storms, have been reconstructed and restored to
National Park Concessions, Inc., was granted a new 20-year con-
tract for continued operations in Mammoth Cave, Big Bend, Isle
Royale, and Olympic National Parks, and the Blue Ridge Parkway.
Under the terms of this contract, the company will invest $3 million
in new and improved facilities at these areas. In addition, contracts
were entered into with concessioners at Fort Sumter, Glacier, and
Lake Mead. Three prospectuses were issued inviting offers in con-
nection with concessions at Fort Jefferson National Monument, and
Hot Springs and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks.
Operations and Maintenance
New maintenance techniques have been employed. A new type
rotary snowplow at Yellowstone, in its first year of operation, gave a
highly satisfactory performance. New mobile highway lane stripers
in areas with highspeed roadways, have reduced costs and discomfort.
Hazardous trees are being removed in public areas in Yosemite, Ban-
delier, Sequoia, and park areas in our Nation's Capital. By using
up-to-date research and management techniques, costs are reduced
and the esthetic enjoyment of the visitor is increased.
To accommodate the campers, hikers, and wilderness enthusiasts,
a back-country cleanup program is underway at Sequoia, and lake-
shore cleanup is progressing nicely at Coulee Dam.
Calendar year 1961 was one of the most successful on record both
in accident reduction and program effort. Two outstanding accom-
plishments were: First, the great reduction in accidental deaths to
National Park Service, concessioner and contractor personnel working
in the parks. The past average of 13 workers (including 3 Service
employees) killed by accidents on the job each year was reduced to a
100 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Picnicking and camping are pleasant interludes for travelers on parkways
administered by the Park Service. Natchez Trace Parkway, Tenn.-Ala.-
Miss., contains 450 miles of roads and offers many picnicking and camping
total of 3 fatal accidents in 1962, 2 of these being contractor employees
and 1 a Service employee. Prior to the one fatal accident, the Service
had compiled a record of 22 consecutive months without a fatal
accident to a Service employee. Second, the direct dollar loss or
cost to the Service from accidents was reduced $283,000, or ap-
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 101
proximately a 61 -percent improvement as compared to the annual
average loss total of previous years.
Park and Recreation Planning
The National Park Service's park-planning program is designed to
expand the National Park system by selecting for preservation —
while still available — those outstanding scenic, scientific, and historic
areas of the Nation which are of national significance so that future
park needs may be fulfilled. Although the Department's Bureau of
Outdoor Recreation is taking over the principal recreation planning
for the Nation, the National Park Service still requires its own plan-
ning operation for areas which it administers or plans to administer.
This program made significant progress during the year. Field
investigations of approximately 60 areas throughout the country —
which had been suggested for possible national park, national his-
toric site, or national recreation area status — were conducted during
the year. Comprehensive planning studies — such as specific area
studies, economic studies, or land-use studies — were made of more
than 20 areas to determine their national significance and their suit-
ability and feasibility for inclusion in the National Park System.
Among these were Florissent Fossil Beds, Colo.; Poverty Point, La.;
Saint-Gaudens, N.H.; Big Horn Canyon, Mont.-Wyo. ; Pecos, N.
Mex. ; and Baltimore, & Ohio Railroad Museum, Maryland.
Illustrated brochures — printed with private donations — were issued
this year to describe the proposed Canyonlands National Park,
Utah; Ice Age National Scientific Reserve, Wis.; Prairie National Park
Kans. ; and Sleeping Bear National Seashore, Mich.
The Department is supporting legislation to authorize the estab-
lishment of the following areas: Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National
Historical Park, Md.; Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Ariz.;
Mount Vernon-Woodlawn Extension, George Washington Memorial
Parkway, Va, ; Great Falls Park (part of National Capital Parks Sys-
tem), Va. ; and Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site, Ariz.
The Department also endorsed a study of a proposed Allegheny Park-
way which would extend from Hagerstown, Md. to Cumberland Gap
National Historical Park. In addition to the above-named areas,
legislation was introduced in the 87th Congress to authorize the es-
tablishment of the following areas: Boston National Historic Sites,
Mass.; Fort Larned National Historic Site, Kans.; Golden Spike
National Monument, Utah; Oregon Dunes National Seashore Recre-
ation Area, Oreg. ; Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Mich. ; Tocks
Island National Recreation Area, Pa.-N. J.; Valle Grande National
Park, N. Mex.; and Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, Calif.
102 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Buck Island Reef National Monument near St. Croix, V.I., was one of the
three new areas added to the National Park System during fiscal 1962.
This area saves delicate coral formations and marine life from dangers of
commercial fishing, spear fishing, and shell and coral collecting activities.
Areas Authorized or Established
Three new areas were established and six areas authorized for
addition to the National Park System during the year.
A unique area, the City of Refuge National Historical Park in
Hawaii, was established on July 1, 1961, to commemorate the sacred
grounds where — until 1819 — the vanquished Hawaiian warriors,
the oppressed, and the taboo breakers could find protection and a
One of the finest marine gardens in the Caribbean is now protected
in the Buck Island Reef National Monument, near St. Croix, V.I.,
which was established by Presidential proclamation on December 28,
On August 7, 1961, Congress authorized the establishment of Cape
Cod National Seashore. This act was a landmark in park legislation
since it authorized $16 million for land acquisition — the first time
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 103
Congress has authorized the appropriation of funds to acquire lands
initially for a major scenic area of the National Park System.
Five new historical areas were authorized by Congress this year.
Fort Davis National Historic Site in Texas, the site of a famous
frontier fort, was authorized on September 8, 1961. The Fort Smith
National Historic Site in Arkansas, authorized by the act of Sep-
tember 13, 1961, will commemorate the two successive forts located
an this site to maintain peace among the several Indian tribes of
this region from 1817 to 1871.
Piscataway Park, planned to be a part of the National Capital
Park System, will preserve the Maryland shoreline of the Potomac
River which contains the historic vista and scenic environs of Mount
Vernon, the George Washington Memorial Parkway and Fort
Washington. This area was authorized for acquisition by the act
)f October 4, 1961.
Another area honoring Abraham Lincoln, the Lincoln Boyhood
National Memorial in Indiana, was authorized on February 19, 1962.
Also, Alexander Hamilton will be honored by the preservation of his
tiome in New York City. Authorized by the act of April 27, 1962,
Dhis building will be moved to the campus of the City College of
New York and be designated Hamilton Grange National Memorial.
Each of these five areas will be officially established when the Federal
Government has acquired the required lands.
Legislation has been enacted during this year which authorized
additions of lands at Cumberland Gap National Historical Park,
Fort Raleigh National Historic Site, and Lassen Volcanic National
Park; additions and deletions at Wupatki National Monument; and
both boundary revisions and name changes for Fort Necessity and
Tupelo National Battlefields.
By Presidential proclamation, 14,720 acres of public lands were
added to Saguaro National Monument, and 375 acres were added to
Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.
Legislation also authorized the disestablishment of the Ackia
Battleground and Meriwether Lewis National Monuments and their
inclusion in the Natchez Trace Parkway. These areas are now known
as the Chickasaw and the Meriwether Lewis units of the parkway.
Planning for Nonurban Parks and Recreation Areas
A 5-year survey was completed on existing and potential parks
and related types of recreation areas to meet future needs. The
survey consisted of a State-by-State investigation, conducted in
104 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOB
cooperation with the States, and identified about 4,800 existing anc
2,800 potential parks and recreation areas which could help to meet
present and future outdoor recreation needs. Such cooperative
nationwide planning will hereafter be the responsibility of the
Department's Bureau of Outdoor Recreation.
Economic research during the year focused on measurement of the
impact of proposed parks on the basic economic structure of an area
and on the comparative effects on the economy and on the genera]
welfare if natural resources are used for recreation development oi
for alternative uses.
A study was made by the University of Utah for the Service tc
determine the economic impact which might be expected to result
from the establishment of the proposed Canyonlands National
Park and to investigate the probable future growth of visits to the
existing concentration of parks and monuments located within the
region of the proposed park. A study was completed also on the
economic feasibility of the proposed Sleeping Bear National Seashore
A study of the recreation resources of northeastern Vermont was
initiated to determine the economic feasibility of developing the
recreation potential of that area. A prospectus for the study was
developed and a contract negotiated with the University of Vermont
Urban Open Space
The Service assisted in the preparation of a joint report by the
Department of the Interior and the Housing and Home Finance
Agency on a long-range program and policy for open space and orderly
development in urban areas. The Service also maintained liaisor
with the Housing and Home Finance Agency on the program ol
grants to States and local public bodies for the acquisition of open-
space land in urban areas, established under the Housing Act of 1961
A 3-year study of reservoir recreation potentialities in the Potomac
River basin was completed, with funds provided by the Corps oi
Engineers. Work was undertaken, also at the request of the Corps
of Engineers, on a 3-year study of the park and recreation area po-
tential of proposed reservoirs in the Ohio River basin.
A report on Puerto Rico's recreation resources was completed undei
contract. Fieldwork was completed on a seashore and park study o1
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Following the disastrous storm of March 6 and 7, 1962, along the
Atlantic coast, which caused severe damage along the barrier beaches
of six States, the Service assisted in the organization of a task force of
Federal and State agencies to make an aerial reconnaissance of the
shorelines of the six States and published a report, "Seashore Preserva-
tion and Recreation Opportunities and Storm Damage." The report
explored the question of dedication of shoreline portions of the barrier
beaches to public use.
Cooperation With the States
Advisory assistance was given in 48 States on 771 occasions, an
increase of 23 percent over 1961. Of special interest is the increase in
the number of requests received for assistance in interpretive planning
and requests from Indian tribes for planning recreation developments
on their lands. In the future, such activities will also be continued by
the Department's Bureau of Outdoor Recreation.
Federal and State agencies cooperated in making a storm damage survey
along the Atlantic coast following the disastrous storm of March 6 and 7,
1962. Assateague Island, Md., above, was one of the areas where damage
to the dunes and barriers was severe. Suggestions were advanced for making
the island a public recreational area.
106 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
"State Park Statistics — 1961" shows substantial increases in
acquisition, development, and use of State parks. Tabulations show
(1) attendance exceeding 273 million, including 23 million overnight
visitors; (2) expenditure of $61 million for operation and maintenance,
$13 million for land acquisition, and $36 million for improvements;
(3) revenue from operations of $23 million; and (4) 7,984 year-round
and 10,142 seasonal personnel. Keported also was a total of 2,792
areas embracing almost 6 million acres.
Real Property Disposal
Recommendations were furnished to General Services Administra-
tion on 28 applications submitted by the States and their political
subdivisions to acquire Federal surplus real properties for public park,
recreation, and historic monument purposes. The Service has carried
compliance responsibility on a total of 232 properties embracing 30,395
acres. Recommendations also were furnished to the Department's
Bureau of Land Management on 78 applications to acquire public-
domain lands for similar purposes.
Reservoir Planning and Management
Two important new policies on acquisition of lands and provision of
recreation facilities on reservoir projects — one issued by the Secretary
of the Interior relating to reservoirs constructed by the Department's
Bureau of Reclamation and the other issued jointly by the Secretaries
of the Interior and Army relating to both Reclamation and Corps of
Engineers projects. These policies provide for all planning reports to
include recommendations for Federal acquisition of all lands needed
in the foreseeable future for recreation purposes and the provision of
basic recreation facilities required for current needs.
Also of outstanding significance is the new statement " Policies,
Standards, and Procedures in the Formulation, Evaluation, and Re-
view of Plans for Use and Development of Water and Related Land
Resources/ ' approved by the President on the recommendations of
the Secretaries of the Interior, Army, Agriculture, and Health, Edu-
cation, and Welfare. This provides that recreation will be given
equivalent consideration as a project purpose on all Federal multi-
purpose water resources projects.
During the year, 90 recreation reports were prepared for the Bureau
of Reclamation and 38 for the Corps of Engineers and arrangements
were concluded with State and local agencies to manage recreation
developments on 7 Reclamation reservoirs. Twenty-one applications
for Federal Power Commission permits and licenses were received and
recommendations provided to the Office of the Project Review
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 107
The Service made its experienced park and recreation specialists
available to provide advisory and planning assistance to States and
their political subdivisions taking advantage of the Area Redevelop-
ment Administration program which was authorized by an act of
Congress approved May 1, 1961.
Design and Construction
The construction program was the most intensive of any previous
year in the National Park Service history. There were 775 new
construction projects programed at approximately $63,166,500,
including projects for recreational facilities in the Upper Colorado
River Basin Reservoir areas, not including exhibits, interpretive
devices, rehabilitation projects, and advanced planning which in
themselves amounted to $2 million.
The new projects, plus work carried over from the previous year,
came to 1,667 projects in the active construction program totaling
$134,677,747. As of May 1962 these totals, through further program
adjustments, had increased to 1,740 projects amounting to $135,007,-
429. Of all projects, 26 percent were completed and an additional
58 percent were under construction. Only 16 percent were not
under construction. To augment professional services provided by
the field design and construction offices, 22 contracts for professional
architectural and engineering services for approximately $144,150
were awarded. Projects involved were estimated to cost approxi-
mately $7 million.
The Service awarded its biggest contract for the ' 'Gateway Arch,"
a 630-foot stainless steel arch which will rise on the St. Louis water-
front at Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. It will be a
dominant feature of downtown St. Louis and is scheduled for comple-
tion in 1964, the 200th anniversary of St. Louis.
The stately visitor center at Parachute Key, Everglades National
Park, an example of dignified Federal architecture, was completed
prior to the heavy upsurge of winter visitor use. The Rock Creek
Park Nature Center in Washington, D.C., filled a long-felt need and
is enjoyed by thousands of visitors in the Nation's Capital.
An unusual architectural design concept, based on the historical
precedent of the octagonal blockhouse of Revolutionary and post-
Revolutionary times, resulted in the pleasant visitor center at Saratoga
National Military Park.
The Gettysburg Cyclorama and Visitor Center, featuring the
colossal painting of the battle by Pierre Philapoteaux, also provides
108 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
a rostrum for important speakers and an auditorium and gathering
ground for several thousand people, in honor of Lincoln's immortal
The faithful restoration of Congress Hall which shows with exacti-
tude the conditions, architecture and decor under which the First
Continental Congress met adjacent to Independence Hall in Phila-
delphia is a worthy achievement in the historic buildings program.
The Division of Engineering supervised 1,134 projects. A total
of 485 minor roads and trails projects were programed in 122 areas
providing improvement of visitor facilities and extension and enlarge-
ment of campground and picnic areas. These, plus projects providing
public access to newly acquired areas, totaled $22,756,595.
A significant accomplishment was the start of a 20-mile jeep trail
at Katmai in Alaska, from Brooks River Camp through a magnificent
wilderness to overlook the Valley of 10,000 Smokes. Heavy equip-
ment and supplies were moved to King Salmon by air across the frozen
Naknek River to Brooks River Camp. Twenty-three visitor facility
projects were constructed on the Blue Ridge Parkway. Reconstruc-
tion of facilities damaged by the hurricane at Cape Hatteras and
Everglades and reconstruction of roads and trails damaged during
the 1961 earthquake at Yellowstone were major projects.
Twenty-seven projects were completed to provide commercial
power and telephone service including lighting at Mammoth Cave and
Carlsbad Caverns and powerlines at Blue Ridge Parkway, Fort
Pulaski, Lake Mead, and Olympic. Five additional radio systems
were completed, bringing the total of leased commercial systems to 36.
Most notable were the Blue Ridge and Natchez Trace Parkways
systems. The Natchez Trace system employs 10 frequencies and
permits instant and constant contact throughout the 450 miles of the
Parkway. Special audiovisual equipment designed to provide auto-
matic slide-sound programs was installed in nine park auditoriums and
three amphitheaters. Electric maps coordinated with narrated des-
criptions illustrate troop movements at Horseshoe Bend, Fredericks-
burg, and Spotsylvania.
General utilities and miscellaneous structures such as marinas,
docks, and interpretive facilities were expanded. Water and sewer
facilities were constructed in 28 States, the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Three hundred and fifty-nine
projects such as signs, picnic and camping facilities, and campfire
circles were constructed in 33 States. One hundred and three
camping areas were developed in 51 areas to bring the total sites in
the system to nearly 22,000.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 109
Greatest emphasis was placed on programs providing additional
miles for continuous travel on the national parkways, improved visitor
facilities, the study of future parkways, and significant major park
road development across the Nation. For parkway programs, a total
contract authorization for $16 million was distributed among the Blue
Ridge, Colonial, Foothills, George Washington Memorial, Natchez
Trace, and Suitland Parkways. On June 30 there were 37 major
contracts totaling approximately $26,300,000 in process under the
Bureau of Public Roads major roads program. These include 52
miles of final paving, 69 miles of grading and base course work, 36
bridges and grade separation structures, 9 tunnels, and other road-
work. Outstanding major park road projects completed included
developments in the East and Far West at a cost of $8.5 million.
Master Plan Coordination
A Division of Master Plan Coordination provides, for the first time,
central coordination and direction to the Service-wide program of
master plan preparation and consists of two major branches, master
plan narratives and master plan drawings.
Master plans for the Upper Colorado River Basin Reservoir areas
such as Crawford, Flaming Gorge, Glen Canyon, Navajo, Paonia, and
Steinaker have been prepared. Construction in some of these areas
has already been undertaken or scheduled.
Recognizing the pressing National Park System land requirements
for conservation, development, and opening of additional areas to the
visiting public and to establish vital new parks, the Congress appro-
priated a total of $7,600,000 for the purchase of lands for fiscal 1962.
The 22,950,000 acres of land and water comprising the areas of the
National Park System is less than 1 percent of the total area of the
United States. They include non-Federal lands totaling 433,000
acres. Although less than 2 percent of the gross acreage, these in-
holdings constitute a serious administrative handicap out of all pro-
portion relative to the 22,517,000 acres of Federal lands now in the
National Park System. Purchase of 14,000 acres in both newly
authorized areas and in established areas, including Civil War sites,
is in process.
110 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
The newly authorized areas are Bent's Old Fort National Historic
Site, Colo., and Minute Man National Historical Park and Cape Cod
National Seashore, both in Massachusetts. Negotiations are pro-
gressing in these three areas for the purchase of properties.
Land-purchase programs are active in 21 established areas, includ-
ing five Civil War sites, with realty acquisitions varying in acreage
and description from a 0.081-acre extensively improved historical
parcel of city land to a 1,200-acre tract of scenic semiarid grazing land.
Other scheduled purchases are homesite subdivisions in stands of
beautiful trees, rights-of-way for road construction, sites for visitor
centers, mining claims, structures of historical and architectural
significance, blighted city property which is a fire hazard threat to
nearby historical buildings, sites of Civil War events and lands to
enhance vistas. —
Various public agencies, private organizations, and individuals dur-
ing the year have donated to the United States real property within
nine areas of the system for the use of all the people of the United
States. Land exchanges in six areas brought significant properties
into Federal ownership.
Other Federal bureaus transferred scenic and important lands to
the custody and jurisdiction of the National Park Service in six of
A major challenge has developed in the struggle to preserve the
ecology of Everglades National Park as an asset in the growth ol
southern Florida. Approximately 90 percent of its fresh water re-
sources originate at precipitation on the park and 10 percent on the
adjacent Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District. That
10 percent, with its seasonal and annual variation in quantity, is
essential to maintain a balanced subtropical ecology on the seasonally
inundated land area; and in the brackish water of its bays and estu-
aries, which are a vital element in the life cycle of the Tortugas shrimp
and other sports and commercial fish on which established industries
have grown throughout the State. It is also needed for the increas-
ing population and other industries of metropolitan Dade County.
The problem is to determine the portion of the 10 percent which may
be spared for the other municipal and industrial purposes without
jeopardizing the ecology, and to cooperate in planning the centra]
and southern Florida flood control project throughout the Greatei
Everglades drainage including the Kissimmee River to provide flood
control, drainage, and water storage and allocation for all purposes,
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Fiscal year 1962 brought 82,300,000 visits to the national parks and
related areas; an increase of 8.6 percent over fiscal year 1961. Early
in the year, total travel moved firmly across the long-run 1947-62
normal growth curve, thus indicating a trend toward a heavier- than-
normal public use of the parks throughout calendar year 1962 and
probably into 1963, after which a relative and modest softening of
this curve may reasonably be expected to occur.
Over 82,300,000 visits were recorded in areas of the National Park System
during fiscal 1962, for an 8.6-percent increase over the previous year. Old
Faithful, above, continues to be a main attraction at Yellowstone National
Turning to calendar year comparison, 1961 growth in total visits
Dver 1960 was not uniform throughout the Nation. Parks in South-
sastern United States rose 12 percent; the Pacific coast and the
National Capital area increased 9 percent; Northeast was up 4 percent;
while travel to parks in the Rocky Mountains, the Plains, and the
Southwest produced changes of less than 1 percent.
Camping in the national parks was up 4.4 percent from 1960 with
a total of 5,051,000 camper days. None of the increase occurred in
tent camping — all of it was in trailer camping which increased 17
percent — so as to amount to almost 30 percent of all camping in the
parks. The expansion of camping facilities reduced the total propor-
112 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
tion of public camping in irregular or overcapacity conditions to 11
percent from the 14 percent recorded in 1960.
Budget and Finance
Continued improvement in the Service's capacity and capability
for meeting its responsibilities was realized through 1962 fiscal year
appropriation increases. In addition to increases in its regular
appropriations, funds were provided the Service in the Department's
Bureau of Reclamation's appropriation to initiate construction of
recreation facilities in the Upper Colorado River Basin Reservoir
area sites as authorized by the Colorado River Storage Project Act.
The following is a comparision of the 1962 appropriations with those
$20, 509, 000
$22, 586, 500
18, 269, 000
1, 581, 000
36, 726, 000
$2, 077, 500
Maintenance and rehabilitation of physical facilities
15, 198, 000
Construction (liquidation of contract authorization)
Total cash appropriations
109, 162, 500
19, 744, 500
Construction (amount by which roads and trails and parkways
contract authorization exceeded cash appropriation)
Total new obligational authority Service appropriations.
Appropriation transfers from other agencies
93, 418, 000
5, 342, 000
113, 162, 500
19, 744, 500
2, 508, 400
Grand total, new obligational authority
98, 760, 000
121, 012, 900
22, 252, 900
Of the total increases reflected in the foregoing, $4,894,000 was for
continuation of construction at Jefferson National Expansion Memo-
rial, $1 million to commence a program for construction of facilities
in the New York City Shrines areas, $2,270,500 for construction of
recreation facilities in the Upper Colorado River Basin Reservoir
area sites, $2,250,000 for commencement of land acquisitions for the
newly authorized Cape Cod National Seashore, $1 million to continue
the land acquisition program for Minute Man National Historical
Park, and $1,875,000 for acquisition of lands in other park areas.
The remainder, $8,963,400, was for strengthening the various Service
A comprehensive review of the Service's visitor fee system was
commenced during the fiscal year. With the provision of additional
visitor facilities and additional uniformed personnel, there are a
number of areas not presently producing any significant amounts of
revenues where the charging of visitor fees is now warranted and in
some instances changes should be made in the fees currently author-
ized. Consideration is also being given to any different types of fees
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 113
that might be charged to make the system more equitable or to insure
realization of the full revenue potential within governing policy and
principles. The study was still in progress at the close of the fiscal
year. It will be continued and completed in the light of developments
with respect to the pending land conservation fund legislation, H.R.
11173 andS. 3118.
NATIONAL CAPITAL PARKS
Legislation was passed in the Congress and signed by the President
during the year that will provide for the preservation of certain lands
on Piscataway Creek in Prince Georges and Charles Counties, Md.,
known as the Mockley Point or Moyoane Park area on the opposite
side of the Potomac River from Mount Vernon. The Department is
authorized to acquire the land for park purposes — approximately
2,600 acres for scenic easements and 1,186 acres by outright acquisi-
tion. Plans are being made for early acquisition of the properties,
about half of which will be donated. Thus, the use of this scenic and
historic area by commercial developments or, as suggested, as a site
for a sewer plant, would be averted.
A new visitor center to serve the ever-increasing number of visitors
to the Nation's Capital — on Hains Point overlooking the Anacostia
and Potomac Rivers — was opened to the public on March 16 as a
pilot project. By the end of the fiscal year 48,087 schoolchildren
and other visitors had been "oriented" at the center by means of
exhibits, maps, photographs, movies, and slides.
The National Capital Planning Commission and the Fine Arts
Commission approved a site on Daingerfield Island, George Wash-
ington Memorial Parkway, for the world's largest planetarium —
proposed to be erected with funds to be raised by the Washington
Planetarium and Space Center. This brings closer to reality an
outstanding addition to the cultural development of the Nation's
The Committee appointed by the President to raise funds for the
National Cultural Center — planned for a site on the Potomac River
upstream from the Lincoln Memorial — is making strides toward a
fulfillment of this long-nourished dream for a facility to meet the
need of Washington residents by providing a suitable "home" for
cultural programs and exhibits.
114 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Also proposed for construction in the District of Columbia is a
$10 million aquarium. One site suggested was East Potomac Park.
Legislation authorizing the aquarium has passed the House. The
Interior Department has endorsed the bill.
Attendance at the memorials has made a new record during the
past year. A comparison of attendance for calendar years 1960 and
1961 at the six most prominent memorials and the White House is
House Where Lincoln Died
Expressway encroachment upon the natural beauty of this park
area, donated to the National Park Service by the Glover and Archbold
families, has been vigorously opposed by the Department of the Inte-
rior and the National Park Service. Legislation to prevent this
development has been introduced in Congress and passed by the
■ft U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1963 O - 678432
2, 488, 174
2, 889, 982
1, 392, 891
1, 592, 279
1, 321, 552
6, 323, 229
NITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Stewart L. Udall, Secretary
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Conrad L. Wirth, Direc
JUN 12 1964
Conrad L. Wirth, Director
On August 22, 1962, the one billionth visit to the national parks
was recorded since the first visit in 1904. At the current pace, the
second billionth will be reached in 11 years.
The National Park System affords Americans opportunities to
enjoy great scenic and inspirational areas of their country in a
natural, unspoiled condition and the rare quality of the primitive
wilderness that was America before it was touched by civilization.
They may better comprehend the physical and spiritual links that
bind America's past to its present and future and they may find
release from the care and tension of the workaday world.
The supply of outdoor recreational facilities and opportunities
is proving inadequate in both number and distribution to meet the
increasing demand. The Nation's burgeoning and mobile popu-
lation will be hard put to find extensive areas of open space. But
it will be the Federal, State, and local parks that will bear the bur-
den : Several thousand recreation seekers cannot be satisfied in a
park designed to accommodate several hundred.
Secretary of the Interior Udall cautioned that "the least we can
do . . . before our land patterns become inalterably fixed ... is
to preserve the few remaining extensive areas of natural open
space . . . now, while there's still time."
The Service is providing more and better opportunities for Amer-
icans to visit, understand, and fully enjoy their great natural, his-
toric, and scientific heritage. While holding to the traditional
concept of preserving wilderness values as completely as possible,
the National Park Service, during fiscal 1963, made great strides
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
in modernizing its services to the public. These improvements
are evidenced in better access roads, more trails for hiking and
horseback riding, more campgrounds, more and better visitor ac-
commodations, and more modern and imaginative interpretive
The National Park Service in fiscal 1963—
. . . Welcomed a new high of 91,496,000 visitors to the Na-
tional Park System and recorded 6,106,000 camp-use days — a
startling 21-percent gain over fiscal 1962.
. . . Saw three areas established as units of the park sys-
tem : Petrified Forest National Park, Ariz. ; Fort Clatsop Na-
tional Memorial, Oreg. ; and Bents Old Fort National Historic
Site, Colo. The Service also welcomed the authorization of
six areas including national seashores at Point Reyes in Cali-
fornia and Padre Island, Tex. ; three national historic sites —
Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace and Sagamore Hill, both in
Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, near La Junta, Colo., one of the three new areas
established during fiscal year 1963, preserves the remains of one of the West's most
significant fur-trading establishments.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
New York, Fort Saint Marks, Fla., and the Frederick Douglass
Home, a unit of the National Capital Parks.
. . . Cooperated in important special studies of the North
Cascades region in Washington State, the Coast Redwoods
region in California, and a comprehensive park and recreation
area study of Hawaii. In addition, the Service is also cooper-
ating in a special Wild Rivers Study being conducted jointly
by the Departments of Agriculture and Interior.
. . . Saw the long-range requirements program, which
began in 1956 with Mission 66, enter a new phase with the
assignment of a task force to chart the future course of both
the Service and the National Park System.
. . . Received from Congress $13,622,000 to purchase pri-
vately owned lands urgently required for recreation, conserva-
tion, development, and construction purposes in 24 long-estab-
lished areas and 7 newly authorized ones.
. . . Accomplished a construction effort in which more than
90 percent of all programed projects either had been completed
or were being built.
The new Visitor Center, Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, one of the nine
new visitor centers opened during the fiscal year, is an example of creative architecture
making its appearance in the National Park Service.
98 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
. . . Highlighted the release of the Secretary's Special
Wildlife Advisory Board Report on March 4, 1963, whose wild-
life management recommendations were subsequently ac-
cepted and implemented in the program.
. . . Opened or installed 9 new visitor centers and installed
more than 150 exhibits.
. . . Moved the Horace M. Albright Training Center to
newly constructed facilities at Grand Canyon National Park.
. . . Raised to 404 the total number of sites eligible for
status in the Registry of National Historic Landmarks.
. . . Increased attention to the equal opportunity program
and to the employment of women in types of positions for
which they are particularly suited, such as park guides and
. . . Issued an unprecedented number of factual reports
and publications to the general public.
. . . Processed, through its Division of International Co-
operation, more than 2,000 letters of inquiry from foreign
. . . Recorded more than 7 million visits to units adminis-
tered by the National Capital Parks.
PARK ATTENDANCE AT NEW HIGH
National Parks registered a total of 91,496,000 visits. This rec-
ord figure was an increase of 11.2 percent over fiscal 1962 — and
more than doubled the volume of park visits of 11 years ago, and
tripled the statistics of 15 years back.
National Park Service statisticians forecast that the existing
developed parks will experience 100 million visits during the Serv-
ice's Silver Anniversary year, 1966. As new recreation areas and
seashores are developed, a 1966 figure substantially greater than
100 million may be confidently expected.
The camp-use days — 6,106,000 during fiscal 1963 — were 21 per-
cent above those recorded during the previous period. That camp-
ing is no longer the nearly exclusive preserve of the family under
a canvas tent on the ground emerged from a special survey made
during 1962. It showed that of every 100 camping parties,
slightly more than 50 use this equipment. Nineteen camped in
house-trailers, seven in tents erected on trailers, six in camper-
coaches, six in station wagons or specially equipped buses, three in
tiny sleeping trailers, and eight utilized more unusual equipment —
or none at all.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Becoming more popular is the use of house trailers as a means of camping.
Park System areas provide for the camping families using house trailers.
Park concessioners and private in-holders operating commercial
accommodations recorded 2,944,000 overnight stays, or 8.7 percent
above fiscal 1962 — the largest relative increase in more than a
New Parks and National Seashores Authorized or Established
Three new areas were established and six areas were authorized
for addition to the National Park System during the year.
Petrified Forest National Park, Ariz., became the Nation's 31st
national park December 9, 1962, when Secretary Udall issued an
One of the two new national seashores authorized by Congress during fiscal year 1963,
Point Reyes National Seashore, Calif., will provide outdoor recreation for one of the
most heavily populated and fastest growing regions in the Nation.
order redesignating the Petrified Forest National Monument as a
national park. A 1958 act had provided that this be done as soon
as the non-Federal holdings, totaling 8,174 acres, were acquired by
the Federal Government.
Fort Clatsop National Memorial, Oreg., commemorating the
Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific coast, was established
October 18, 1962.
The site of a historic fur-trading enterprise located on the moun-
tain route of the Santa Fe Trial in Colorado — Bents Old Fort —
was established on March 15, 1963, as Bents Old Fort National
Two national seashores were authorized by Congress in recogniz-
ing the need to preserve additional portions of our rapidly vanish-
ing seashore. They were Point Reyes National Seashore, Calif.,
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 101
authorized September 13, 1962, and Padre Island National Sea-
shore, Tex., authorized September 28, 1962.
Four historic sites were also authorized for inclusion in the Na-
tional Park System. They are the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace
National Historic Site and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site,
both authorized July 25, 1962, to preserve in Federal ownership
these historically significant properties in New York State, which
were associated with the life of President Theodore Roosevelt ; the
Frederick Douglass Home, District of Columbia, authorized Sep-
tember 5, 1962, as a unit of the National Capital Parks, to preserve
the home of this noted Negro leader ; and Fort Saint Marks National
Historic Site, Fla., authorized October 10, 1962, to protect the site
where several successive forts were built, starting about 1679.
AND USE GAIN
Park and visitor protection continued to receive the highest
priorities in all areas of the National Park System. Conservation
of the unique, natural, and primitive values, together with provi-
sion for public recreational enjoyment of the esthetic and historic
values by more than 90 million visitors, were enhanced through
intensive planning, organization, and development.
Release of the Secretary's Special Wildlife Advisory Board Re-
port, the subsequent acceptance of its recommendations, and im-
plementation of activities highlighted the wildlife management
program in the national parks. A review of current and future
national park wildlife programs was prepared so that a stepped-up
program of cooperative understanding, study, and management
of migratory animals might be resolved through increased contacts
with other conservation agencies.
There has been a significant need to preserve park values through
increased wildlife management. These included the establishment
of wildlife control programs which, in fiscal 1963, involved relo-
cation of 2,079 large mammals and the necessary reduction of
Cooperative fisheries studies continued and fish planting pro-
grams were carried out in 13 areas.
102 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
The Horace M. Albright Training Center (formerly the National
Park Service Training Center) was relocated in new facilities at
Grand Canyon National Park, Ariz. Nearly 300 members of the
uniformed staff completed the concentrated 3-month orientation
and indoctrination training program.
Forest, Soil, and Water Problems Attacked
During fiscal 1963, a record 609 fires burned 79,252 acres
inside park areas and 115,088 acres in protection zones outside
The Horace M. Albright Training Center was relocated in new facilities at Grand Canyon
National Park. Ariz.
*11 : i§&
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 103
Dark boundaries. Approximately 50 percent of these fires were
nan caused. The Service spent $261,029 in fire-suppression activi-
ties. To counter additional fire damage, the Service enjoyed the
continuous and effective cooperation of other land-management
igencies. An interdepartmental fire behavior school was held in
Control continued against epidemic outbreaks of forest pests
n developed and concentrated visitor-use areas. The program in-
cluded protection of outstanding or rare plant species and plant
Soil and moisture conservation programs, undertaken to restore
iepleted or previously misused land, vegetation, and water re-
sources and to restore natural conditions, were conducted in 20
parks. A conservation survey on 225,000 acres of depleted wild-
ife range in Yellowstone National Park started. Cooperative ac-
tivities with local soil and water conservation districts and other
Mew Visitor Centers Opened
Nine new visitor centers were opened : Antietam National Batt-
lefield Site, Md.; Pea Ridge National Military Park, Ark.;
hancellorsville Battlefield, Va. ; Lehman Caves National Monu-
nent, Nev. ; Fort Clatsop National Memorial, Oreg. ; Petrified For-
est National Park, Ariz. ; Christiansted National Historic Site,
Virgin Islands ; Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site, N. Y. ;
md Big Bend National Park, Tex.
Exhibit Installations Added
Park visitors find exhibits — both in the visitor centers and along
:he roads and trials — help them understand and enjoy the parks.
Durable, self-operating, accurate, and attractive exhibits afford
in economical and effective aid to interpretation. During the year
;he Service installed over 150 exhibits in the 9 new visitor centers,
t added, updated, or rehabilitated nearly 100 exhibits in 15 estab-
ished visitor centers. At year's end, exhibits were in production
? or six more. The Service experimented successfully with new
nethods of improving the design and durability of outdoor exhibits,
n the process, over 50 new ones were installed in 8 parks.
nterpretation Activities Gain Specimens
The heart of good exhibits are the specimens they display. The
Service's important collections of historic and scientific objects also
104 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Park visitors find exhibits in the visitor centers and along the roads and trails help them
to understand better and enjoy the parks. This unique outdoor exhibit at Badlands
National Monument, S. Dak., is a glass-enclosed "fossils-in-place" display.
pay dividends in the preservation and administration of the parks
in return for the expert care they require.
The Service continued to refine its collections by adding signifi-
cant and necessary new material while disposing of specimens not
useful to the parks. The outstanding accession was Benjamin
Franklin's desk, purchased at auction for Independence National
Historical Park with the aid of the Eastern National Park and
The Service received numerous gifts of specimens for the Amer-
ican Museum of Immigration, the Museum of Westward Expan-
sion, and for other park museums across the country.
Training Programs Developed
Improvement of opportunities for visitors to understand and
enjoy their national parks increased. Sixteen new naturalist posi-
tions were filled during the year. Two new training programs for
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 105
improving the quality and effectiveness of performance in interpre-
tive programs were started. One was the opening of the Stephen
T. Mather Interpretive Training and Research Center at Harpers
Ferry, W. Va. ; the other was use of demonstrations and training
sessions at campfire programs. Results will be evaluated as a pos-
sible continuing training method. A committee was established
to develop and evaluate new ideas and devices for interpretation.
Concession Installations Improved
New concession contracts were approved for Yosemite, Blue
Ridge Parkway, and National Capital Region, in addition to Inde-
pendence and Castillo de San Marcos. A major feature of the new
concession contract at Yosemite was a $2 million construction com-
mitment for new and improved visitor accommodations. Offers
were invited for concessions at Flaming Gorge, Glen Canyon, Great
Smoky Mountains, and Cape Hatteras.
Important concessioner investments were made at Grand Can-
yon (South Rim), $388,347; Lake Mead, $134,264; Petrified For-
est, $116,038; Sequoia and Kings Canyon, $388,403; Shenandoah,
$196,854; Grand Teton, $334,581; Independence, $207,269; Cas-
tillo de San Marcos, $245,699; and Yosemite, $622,412. Addi-
tional projects by concessioners were underway or were planned at
Blue Ridge, Big Bend, Mammoth Cave, Olympic, and Glen Canyon.
Pilot Project Used
An integrated training program for first- and Second-line super-
visors was developed and presented. Also, as a pilot project, stu-
dents were hired from a 2-year technical school to evaluate educa-
tion in fields of horticulture, construction, and engineering in terms
of our needs and efficient manpower utilization. The Service
believes that such graduates offer great potential to improve
Sanitation Poses Problem
As the number of visits increases throughout the National Park
System, the problems of littering and sanitation removal and dis-
posal costs increase. During the year, the Park Service, along with
the Forest Service, published a litterbug poster for use in all na-
tional parks and national forests. This seeks to develop a coop-
erative attitude toward keeping such areas clean. A study was
The National Geographic Society donated $50,000 for Wetherill Mesa research al
Mesa Verde National Park, Colo. This is the Cliff Palace at Wetherill Mesa.
started on disposal methods and practices to be used in national
Historical Interpretation Advances
The Sound and Light programs, started in fiscal 1962 at Inde-
pendence National Historical Park and Castillo de San Marcos
National Monument, were in full operation and awaited complete
evaluation of public acceptance. Proposals to extend such service
to other areas were held in abeyance pending evaluation.
National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings Active
Studies were completed in 6 basic themes of American history
while 93 sites and structures were classified as having exceptional
value and were approved as eligible for the Registry of National
Historic Landmarks. They brought the total to 404.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 107
Archeological Research Conducted
Archeological research was carried out in 22 Service areas. Ma-
jor projects were started at Grand Portage, Mound City, and Mount
McKinley. Other projects began or were continued at Hopewell
Village, Chalmette, and Mesa Verde. The National Geographic
Society donated another $50,000 for Wetherill Mesa research at
Salvage Archeology Widely Supported
Extensive salvage archeology in reservoir areas continued
through financial cooperation with other Federal agencies and
State and local institutions. The Smithsonian Institution, with
funds from the Service, operated 16 field parties in the Missouri
River Basin. Under cooperative agreements, 41 other reservoir
areas were investigated by 27 different institutions. Valuable
scientific information is constantly being gathered by projects in
the National Park Service areas and salvage areas. This is proved
by the receipt of 91 research reports on such projects.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION SET RECORD
The construction program exceeded that of any previous year.
The Service has plans for 2,343 construction projects totaling
more than $152 million. These include recreational facilities in the
Upper Colorado River Basin Reservoir areas. An additional $2
million was programed for exhibits, interpretive devices, rehabili-
tation projects, and advanced planning. The Service managed
332 projects totaling $7,936,000 under the Public Works Accelera-
tion Act in 42 counties or election districts in 21 States, Puerto
Rico, and the Virgin Islands. They were in 35 parks, monuments,
or recreation areas administered by the National Park Service.
The close of fiscal 1963 marked the end of a most successful
construction effort of the Office of Design and Construction. At
that time, more than 90 percent of all programed projects either
had been completed or were under construction. Those projects
programed, but not underway at that time, were delayed because
of unforeseen exigencies such as land acquisition, archeological
research, and master plan preparation and approval.
Planning was completed for projects programed for construction
during fiscal 1964. Emphasis was on providing more visitor facil-
ities in established and newly acquired areas. Some of the more sig-
108 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
nificant projects will provide new or additional facilities to visitor
developments in Blue Ridge Parkway, Dinosaur, Wind Cave, Grand
Teton, Yellowstone, Big Bend, Saguaro, Zion, Death Valley, Lava
Beds, and Sequoia-Kings Canyon ; initial development of recently
established areas as Fort Davis, Whiskeytown, and Cape Cod
National Seashore; and complete programed development in a
single year of such areas as Fort Raleigh, Gila Cliff Dwellings,
Glacier Bay, Sitka, and Hamilton Grange. Continuation of long-
range construction projects, such as archeological surveys, excava-
tion, and ruins stabilization in Mesa Verde and dune and beach
stabilization at Cape Hatteras National Seashore, are also
Architectural Appeal Stressed
Completion of the Petrified Forest Community by the inter-
nationally known architects, Neutra and Alexander, is an example
of outstanding environmental architecture. Faithful adherence to
authenticity characterizes the continuing and most satisfactory
restoration of buildings in Independence Square. The substantial
contributions of individuals, universities, and municipalities in
money, facilities, and drawings has increased the accomplishments
of the Historic American Building Survey and the resulting
The prototype Wisconsin Catalog of historic buildings, designed
for visual understanding and of broad interest to both the scholar
and the lay public, approached its final stage. Interest by States
and universities could result in a complete 50-State series.
Division of Construction Created
The Division of Construction, responsible for construction poli-
cies and contract administration, was created late in the year and
is expected to play an important role in the National Park Service.
The Division of Engineering supervised more than 1,600
projects, totaling $41,730,300, in 168 areas in 40 States, the Virgin
Islands, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.
Of particular significance was participation with the Federal
Aviation Agency in constructing public airports in the vicinity of
Yellowstone National Park and Grand Canyon National Park
(South Rim). Both airports will become operable during 1964
and will permit scheduled airline service to the parks. They also
will aid in administration and protection of the areas. A survey
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
was being conducted to determine Service requirements for similar
facilities in or near other areas it administers.
Development of recreation facilities at reservoirs in the Upper
Colorado River Basin continued. Visitor facilities, such as camp-
grounds, picnic grounds, marinas, and boat-launching ramps and
utilities systems, are included in the present construction program
of 45 projects totaling more than $1,980,181 at Crawford, Flaming
Gorge, Glen Canyon, Paonia, Steinaker, and Navajo Reservoir
Provision of visitor facilities, including construction of camp-
grounds and picnic areas, was stressed. Underway were 376
projects, totaling more than $12 million in 69 areas in 31 States.
They will provide more than 9,000 new campground sites, approxi-
mately 2,400 picnic area sites, and the rehabilitation of 945 camp-
ground sites. Included in this total were 96 roads and trails proj-
ects, 108 utilities projects, and 27 miscellaneous projects to serve
these visitor facilities. In addition to roads and trails projects to
provide access to campgrounds and picnic areas, 440 roads and
Visitor facilities, including boat-launching ramps and marinas, are part of the construction
program of 45 projects. Water skiing is a popular water sport on Lake Powell now
filling above Glen Canyon Dam in the desert country of Utah and northern Arizona.
110 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
trails projects, totaling more than $13,104,243, were scheduled for
construction in 108 national parks, national monuments, and na-
tional recreation areas in 35 States. Storm damage repairs to
dunes and beaches in Cape Hatteras National Seashore, and repairs
to flood-damaged trails in Sequoia-Kings Canyon were also made.
The Service scheduled 509 projects totaling more than $8,225,056
for miscellaneous construction items in 168 parks, monuments, and
recreation areas in 40 States.
More than 300 utilities construction projects totaling $8,527,873
in 114 national park areas, were underway or being readied.
Conversion of National Park Service radio systems to narrow
band frequencies was completed or was underway at 15 parks,
parkways, monuments, and the National Capital Region. Instal-
lation of new radio systems was completed or started at nine parks
and monuments. Commercial electric powerlines were extended
to supply power to the following : Colorado, Jewel Cave, Theodore
Roosevelt, Capulin Mountain, Great Sand Dunes, Hovenweep^
Death Valley, Mount Rainier, and Olympic. Construction of a com-
mercial powerline into Death Valley National Monument culmi-
nated many years of negotiations.
Landscape Architecture Reaches Many Areas
A $16 million contract authorization for landscaping was dis-
tributed as follows : Baltimore- Washington Parkway, $166,100
Blue Ridge Parkway, $6,604,300; Colonial Parkway, $343,200
Foothills Parkway, $86,700 ; George Washington Memorial Park-
way, $1,480,500; Natchez Trace Parkway, $4,185,400; Rock Creek
and Potomac Parkways, $2,933,800; and advance planning,
Fifteen major projects totaling $10,900,000 were completed
They included 45 miles of paving, 29 miles of grading, 12 gradt
separations and bridges, and 1 tunnel. On the Blue Ridge Park-
way, a 20-mile section was opened from Beech Gap to Balsam Gap
where the parkway road reaches its highest elevation, 6,050 feet
at Richland Balsam. Its opening provides continuous travel wesi
of Asheville from Pisgah Inn through Wagon Road Gap 60 mile*
to the southern terminus at Great Smoky Mountains Nationa
Thirty-nine contracts totaling approximately $25 million wen
in progress under the Bureau of Public Roads. They included 5!
miles of paving, 63 miles of grading and base course work, 4!
bridges and grade separations, 8 tunnels, and other road-improve
ment work. About $4,874,000 worth of construction was concen
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Fifteen major parkway contracts were completed durins fiscal year 1963, including
paving of roads, grading, and construction of bridges and road separations. This bridge
construction on the Blue Ridge Parkway was among those just completed.
trated on the final link of the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia
around the city of Roanoke, and $6,310,000 on the sections west of
Asheville between Pisgah Inn and U.S. Highway 25. Both sec-
tions are expected to be ready for the 1965 travel season. Work
started on 41/2 miles of the 11-mile section around Asheville. The
Asheville gap and the 5!^ miles around Grandfather Mountain,
for which right-of-way has not been acquired, are the only stretches
of the 469-mile parkway not yet started. Reports prepared by
the Bureau of Public Roads and the National Park Service were
completed for the Great River Road in Iowa and for Parts I and II
in Minnesota, containing recommendations for land acquisition,
scenic easement, and control of access. Studies for similar reports
were underway in Arkansas, Wisconsin, and Illinois.
The Branch of Parkways, in collaboration with the Bureau of
Public Roads, continued studies on several proposed national park-
Blue Ridge Extension into North Carolina and Georgia (190
miles). — A favorable report was prepared and submitted to Con-
gress by the Departments of Interior and Commerce.
112 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Allegheny Parkway (550 miles), Maryland, West Virginia, Vir-
ginia, and Kentucky. — Field studies started. The report is sched-
uled for completion in fiscal 1964.
New River Parkway (99 miles), West Virginia. — Field studies
nearly completed and the report to the Area Redevelopment Ad-
ministration is in preparation.
George Washington Country Parkway (184 miles), Mount Ver-
non to Yorktown, Va. — Field studies continued.
About $6,850,000 of roadwork was contracted for.
Most of the 75 miles of roadwork completed was reconstruction
of existing routes. Principal jobs completed were at Glacier,
Grand Canyon, Crater Lake, and Mount McKinley. One outstand-
ing section of new road was built as the through scenic highway
at Capitol Reef.
Master Plan Coordination Developed
A new concept, the "Package Master Plan," was adopted. It
combines into one document all narrative and graphic material
necessary to assure continuity in managing and developing a park.
This system involves the simultaneous study by a team of men ori-
ented and experienced in master plan concepts. They prepare this
document in the park in conjunction with the park staff.
This method will help bring master plans up to date and keep
them current. Following adoption of the system in fiscal 1963,
five complete master plans were submitted and approved, while
numerous others were under preparation. Among those com-
pleted are three for new parks so public use facilities can be pro-
vided soon after the areas have been established. These include
Cape Cod, Bents Old Fort, and Fort Davis. In preparation are
those for Hamilton Grange, Lincoln Boyhood, Padre Island, Point
Reyes, Sagamore Hill, and Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace.
PLANNING PROGRAM ACTIVE
The planning program seeks the selection for preservation —
while still available — of those outstanding scenic, scientific, his-
toric, and recreation areas which are of national significance so
that park needs may be fulfilled. This program is urgent because
the cost of the most desirable areas is rapidly increasing and the
opportunities to preserve the best remaining areas are diminishing
as such areas are taken for industrial, commercial, residential, and
other forms of development.
- -r. .
Reports were completed on comprehensive planning studies of 16 major areas suggested
for addition in the National Park System, including Big Horn Canyon, Montana-Wyoming.
Significant planning progress was made during the year. The
extensive planning work required to prepare suggestions for legis-
lative consideration continued on 37 proposed projects. Reports
were completed on the comprehensive planning studies of 16 major
areas suggested for addition to the National Park System. Among
these were Bighorn Canyon, Mont.-Wyo. ; Buffalo River, Ark. ;
Congaree Swamp, S.C. ; Guadalupe Mountains, Tex. ; John Muir
Home, Calif. ; and Longfellow House, Mass. Field investigations
of about 30 additional areas were made, in various degrees of detail,
to determine whether they were of national significance.
The Department announced its support for establishing the fol-
lowing : Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Pa. ;
Canyonlands National Park, Utah ; Fire Island National Seashore,
N.Y. ; Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Ariz. ; Fort Larned Na-
tional Historic Site, Kans. ; Fort Union Trading Post National His-
toric Site, N. Dak.-Mont. ; Great Falls Park (part of George Wash-
ington Memorial Parkway) , Va. ; Hubbell Trading Post National
Historic Site, Ariz. ; Ice Age National Scientific Reserve, Wis. ;
Johnstown Flood National Memorial, Pa. ; Oregon Dunes National
Seashore, Oreg. ; Ozark National Rivers, Mo. ; Poverty Point Na-
114 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
tional Monument, La. ; Prairie National Park, Kans. ; Sleeping Bear
Dunes National Lakeshore, Mich. ; and Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trin-
ity National Recreation Area, Calif.
In addition, Congress studied establishment of the Boston Na-
tional Historic Sites, Mass.; Channel Islands National Seashore,
Calif. ; Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park, Md. ;
Great Basin National Park, Nev. ; Indiana Dunes National Lake-
shore, Ind. ; Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Mich. ; Saint-
Gaudens National Historic Site, N.H. ; Tocks Island National Rec-
reation Area, N. J.-Pa. ; and Valle Grande-Bandelier National Park,
LANDS ACQUIRED FOR PUBLIC USE
Congress appropriated $13,622,000 in fiscal 1963 for purchase
of privately owned lands urgently required for recreation, con-
servation, development, and construction purposes in 24 long-
established areas and in 7 newly authorized national park areas
to provide public areas for America.
Significant donations of lands and money helped in acquiring
land in 15 areas. One donation was for $500,000. This will be
used to purchase lands in the Virgin Islands National Park. Ex-
changes of private lands for Federal lands benefited five areas, and
transfers of Federal lands from other Government agencies helped
add land to six areas.
Added to the National Park System by various means were
53,919.41 acres of land and water. Through boundary revisions,
4,196.92 acres were excluded, resulting in a net gain of 49,722.49
acres. Most of the excluded acreage reverted to the public domain.
Accessions were as follows : Purchased with appropriated funds,
4,533.98 acres; donated, 24,815.17 acres; transferred, 19,710.00
acres ; and exchanged, 4,860.26 acres.
Remaining were 673,400 acres of non-Federal lands and waters
within national park areas. Such non-Federal holdings continued
as an administrative handicap and prevented complete conserva-
tion and full utilization of adjoining Federal lands for public park
A land-acquisition program started at the new Point Reyes Na-
tional Seashore, Calif., and land acquisition programs progressed
at other recently authorized areas : Fort Smith National Historic
Site, Ark.; Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, Ind.; Mockley
Point in Maryland, across the Potomac from Mount Vernon;
Minute Man National Historical Park, Mass. ; and Cape Cod Na-
tional Seashore, Mass.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 115
Land-purchase programs were underway at five Civil War sites
to consolidate Federal holdings in time for centennial celebrations
and for permanent preservation of historic scenes.
At year's end 170 contracts were pending for the purchase of
lands in 19 areas of the National Park System. When completed,
they will bring an additional 5,112.48 acres into Federal ownership.
Also pending for title clearance were the gifts of 4,576 acres of land
in three areas.
Boundary Adjustments Made
During the year, Congress authorized additions of lands at Capu-
lin Mountain National Monument, N. Mex. ; additions of lands and
submerged lands at Virgin Islands National Park in the Virgin
Islands ; additions of lands and name changes at Big Hole National
Battlefield, Mont., and Petersburg National Battlefield, Va., and
both additions and deletions of land at Vicksburg National Mili-
tary Park, Miss.
Congress also directed that the Edison Laboratory National
Monument and the Edison Home National Historic Site be com-
bined into the Edison National Historic Site, N.J. Congress also
changed Harpers Ferry National Monument, W. Va., to Harpers
Ferry National Historic Site.
By Presidential proclamations, 5,361 acres were added to Craters
of the Moon National Monument, Idaho ; 2,882 acres were added to
and 3,925 acres deleted from Bandelier National Monument, N.
Mex. ; and 5,236 acres of public land were added to and 320 acres
were deleted from the Natural Bridges National Monument, Utah.
Economic research during the year focused on measuring the
impact of proposed parks on the basic economic structure of sur-
rounding areas. An economic study of the proposed Buffalo Na-
tional River was made by the University of Arkansas. A similar
study was made by Michigan State University of the proposed
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. Other completed studies were
for the proposed Between-the-Lakes National Recreation Area, by
the Tennessee State Planning Board, and for Northeastern Ver-
mont, by the University of Vermont. An economic study of a pro-
posed national park on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, is being con-
ducted under contract.
Special Studies Underway
The National Park Service is cooperating in a significant study
of the North Cascades region of the State of Washington, being
116 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Glacier Peak in the Wilderness Area of the North Cascades region, in Washington State,
is a classic example of the serenity of wilderness.
conducted jointly by the Interior and Agriculture Departments.
A second important study was being conducted by the Service of
the Coast Redwoods region of California, made possible by a grant
from the National Geographic Society. Another special study on
recreation was being conducted in Hawaii under contract. In ad-
dition, the Service cooperated in a special Wild Rivers Study by
the Departments of Agriculture and Interior.
Long-Range Requirements Studied
The long-range requirements program entered a new phase dur-
ing the year with the assignment of a six-man task force to make
plans for the future course of both the National Park System and
the National Park Service. The completed long-range plan, ex-
pected to be released in fiscal 1964, will form the basis for shorter
range programs to meet constantly changing conditions imposed by
natural growth and need.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 117
The plan will develop long-range objectives and guidelines for the
management, use, and development of a well-rounded and evenly
distributed National Park System.
Such a long-range plan sees as a foremost challenge the impact
of rapidly increasing public use on units of the National Park
System. While it took 58 years to reach the one billionth visit, the
Service estimates that the second billionth will be reached in 11
HEAVY PUBLIC DEMAND FOR REPORTS
Public interest in the National Park System was reflected in an
unprecedented demand for reports and publications regarding all
areas administered by the National Park Service.
Publications and Services Grow
The National Park Service has a large and varied publication
program. Three areas of work are involved : informational fold-
ers, student booklets, and books. In fiscal 1963, the National Park
Service printed 17,508,000 folders for 175 areas and 70,000 copies
of 4 general informational folders. Four student booklets were
added to a library of over 40 such works. Four reference or re-
search documents were under preparation.
The public inquiries function of the National Park Service is
closely alined with the Service's publishing program. Each year
the number of inquiries for general information increases. In
fiscal 1963, almost 65,000 inquiries were received by letter, tele-
phone, or personal visit. More than 90 percent of these requests
were answered in some way with printed material.
Audiovisual Services Improved
More emphasis was placed on the quality of audiovisual program
materials. Two recording technicians were added to the staff of
the Branch of Audiovisual Services to improve the fidelity of Serv-
ice-recorded material. New audiovisual program materials cre-
ated during the year included production of 11 sound-slide film
programs for visitor centers and a 16-mm. motion picture film for
Fort McHenry's new Visitor Center, completion of 8 new cabinet
installations using captioned slides, and production of 39 recorded
messages for new audio stations. As a result of the audiovisual
installations during the past several years, the work of providing
replacement tapes increased tremendously.
118 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Efforts to increase interpretive service to visitors from other
countries continued. Audio messages in six languages were pre-
pared through the cooperation of the Voice of America for use at
Congress Hall (Independence National Historical Park) in Phila-
The Branch of Still and Motion Pictures was reorganized. A
new system was set up for filing and distributing still pictures, mo-
tion pictures, slides and transparencies. This makes such mate-
rials more accessible to its users and saves money.
Plans were made to obtain more photographs from field units
and regional offices to insure a steady flow of quality material to
meet the steadily increasing number of requests.
At year's end, a contract was awarded for production of a Na-
tional Park Service film for public distribution.
International Cooperation Increased
The Division of International Cooperation held conferences on
park projects with representatives from England, Norway, Den-
mark, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Katanga, Ghana, East and
South Africa, India, Thailand, Malaya, the Philippines, New Zea-
land, and Australia.
An outstanding event was the First World Conference on Na-
tional Parks held in Seattle June 30 to July 7, 1962. Field trips in
connection with the conference were made to Mount Rainier, Olym-
pic, Yellowstone, Yosemite, and Glacier National Parks. Nearly
300 delegates from 63 countries participated in the conference.
During the past year more than 2,000 letters of inquiry from
abroad were received and were answered by the Division of Inter-
national Cooperation. The Service estimated that 2,500,000 for-
eign visitors from 92 countries were received by personal contact
by staff members of the National Park Service outside the Na-
tional Capital Parks area.
Technical assistance projects were undertaken in Rhodesia, Tan-
ganyika, Kenya, England, and South Africa. Specialized, inserv-
ice, and on-the-job training was extended to 31 persons from
Kenya, Uganda, the Congo, South Africa, Nyasaland, Venezuela,
Argentina, Philippines, Thailand, Israel, Pakistan, Lebanon, and
Costa Rica. Special programs were arranged for groups of teach-
ers and educators from 15 different countries. Special schedules
in National Park Service areas were arranged for photographic,
radio, and communications teams from Indonesia, Kenya, Japan,
Austria, and France.
Jefferson Memorial, and other National Capital Region areas, attracted nearly 7,000,000
visitors during fiscal year 1963. A new feature was the floodlighting of several of the
memorials at night.
NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION CREATED
Region Six became the "National Capital Region" when the re-
gional offices of the National Park Service were given geographical
designations instead of numbers. Construction of a new "home"
for the National Capital Region offices in East Potomac Park was
120 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
virtually completed during the fiscal year, providing a central site
to unify activities of the region. Construction of the Park Police
Headquarters wing to the Operations Building started and was
expected to be completed before the end of fiscal 1964.
Visits reached a record high of nearly 7,100,000, an increase of
12.7 percent over 1962. Visiting hours at the Jefferson Memorial
were extended and floodlighting of the memorial at night created
much favorable comment.
Recreational Opportunities Increased
Due to increased public use of recreational facilities in the park
system, the maintenance force conditioned and placed into use a
record number of athletic fields. Several additional recreational
programs, such as track meets, were scheduled. Considerable
work was undertaken to condition the grounds of the new District
of Columbia Stadium and develop practice football fields.
Fifty picnic sites at Fort Washington and 60 sites at Fort Hunt
were completed and opened. Development of 200 additional picnic
areas at Turkey Run Recreational Area, 50 at Greenbelt Park, and
220 at Carderock Recreational Center started. Sixty new picnic
sites neared completion at Prince William Forest Park ; others were
Additional park facilities were provided and the channel dredged
for a boat-launching ramp at Daingerfield Island Marina. A boat-
launching site was opened at Gravelly Point on the George Wash-
ington Memorial Parkway.
The Potomac Park Motor Court was closed December 31, 1962,
because of sewer construction and other factors, thus making the
need for increased camping facilities in the National Capital Re-
gion more evident than ever. At Prince William Forest Park,
construction of 120 new fully equipped family tent campsites was
virtually completed. Plans were laid for constructing a trailer
village in the park. This facility should be ready for use by the
beginning of the 1964 camping season. Work started on 50 new
tent campsites at Greenbelt Park. Early completion was planned.
Additional sites will be developed if requirements increase.
Park Police Enlarged
The authorization of 31 new positions on the U.S. Park Police
Force and retirement of several experienced men necessitated an
accelerated recruitment and training program. Specialized train-
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
ing received by supervisors and trainees contributed greatly to a
higher level of performance and effectiveness of the protective
Designs and locations of the Taras Shevchenko Memorial and the
Mary McLeod Bethune Memorial, authorized by Congress for loca-
tion in the park system, were approved. The Boy Scout Memorial
on the grounds south of the White House neared completion. A
contract was let for constructing the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial
on Roosevelt Island.
The following is a comparison of the 1963 appropriations with
those for 1962 :
$22, 548, 851
18, 094, 000
1, 581, 000
37, 976, 000
30, 000, 000
$25, 383, 304
20, 578, 550
2, 055, 200
45, 775, 500
27, 000, 000
$2, 834, 453
Maintenance and rehabilitation of physical facil-
2, 484, 550
7, 799, 500
Construction (liquidation of contract authoriza-
—3, 000, 000
110, 199, 851
4, 000, 000
120, 792, 554
7, 000, 000
10, 592, 703
Construction (amount by which roads and trails
and parkways contract authorization exceeded
3, 000, 000
Total new obligational authority Service
114, 199, 851
8, 346, 416
127, 792, 554
16, 220, 644
13, 592, 703
7, 874, 228
Grand total, new obligational authority
122, 546, 267
144, 013, 198
Of the total increase for fiscal 1963, $996,000 was for increased
salary costs as authorized by the Congress; $1,615,000 was for a
share of the cost of constructing airports in the vicinity of Grand
Canyon and Yellowstone National Parks; $5 million for starting
land acquisition for Point Reyes National Seashore, Calif. ; and
$7,976,000 for various projects under the Accelerated Public Works
program. The remainder, $5,879,931, was for strengthening the
various Service programs, including Mission 66 developments.
Financial Management Improved
A study was made during the year of the accounting and payroll
operations at Mount Rainier and Olympic National Parks, Wash.,
to determine whether such functions should be transferred to the
122 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Western Regional Office in San Francisco, Calif. On the basis of the
study findings, the Service is planning to abolish these two fielc
finance offices during fiscal 1964. This will reduce the number o:
field finance offices to 20 with an annual savings of approximately
$18,000. At the start of the financial management improvemen -
program in 1954, there were 46 field finance offices.
A new financial management system to serve the three fiek
Design and Construction Offices was developed during the year anc
installed on a pilot basis in the Western Office in San Francisco
Calif. The major feature of the system is a new chart of cost ac
counts designed to meet specific needs. Other features includ<
elimination of certain duplications of effort that had evolved ovei
a period of time, the streamlining of fiscal document review, anc
more meaningful financial reporting to management. The systen
will be installed in the Eastern Office of Design and Construction
Philadelphia, and the National Capital Office of Design and Con
struction, Washington, D.C., during fiscal 1964.
During the year a task force study was made of the Service'}
cost accounting classifications, other than those for the Design an(
Construction Field Office operations, in the light of managemen
needs for cost data. As a result, the chart of cost accounts was
modified, effective at the beginning of fiscal 1964, eliminating an(
combining many of the classifications with a net reduction of abou'
47 percent in the number of cost accounts comprising the chart
This modification will bring about better use of manpower and wil
provide more meaningful cost data to management.
Management Appraisal Program Approved
A management appraisal program was approved and shouk
help assure top management of the effective and proper use o:
delegated authority, manpower and funds, and the efficiency anc
coordination of all activities. A major periodic management re
view is to be conducted in each regional office at least once even
2 years and of every park in the region at least once every 3 years
Thus, over a 3-year period each park will have been appraised
The management appraisal program is a vital tool in the manage
ment of the Service and should produce significant economies ii
manpower and fund utilization.
Personnel and Employment Programs Advanced
Fiscal 1963 was of considerable significance in the training field
The Branch of Employee Development and Training, in the Divi
sion of Personnel, conducted 1-week supervisory training course*
for a total of 150 first-line supervisors in 4 of our 6 regions. Thes<
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 123
courses were unique in that this was a new training area for the
Washington Office (previous management training has been con-
ducted at upper management levels) ; and one-half the participants
in each course were "blue-collar" supervisors. The coaching phase
of the Service's Management Development Program started. A
booklet, "A Plan for the Man," was distributed to all managerial
employees. The goal to be attained with the use of guidance, pre-
sented in the booklet is the preparation of an individualized de-
velopment plan, mutually agreed upon by the supervisor and his
subordinate, for each service employee in a leadership position.
Increased attention was devoted to the equal employment oppor-
tunity program and to the employment of women in types of posi-
tions for which they are particularly suited, such as park guide and
park interpretive positions.
Safety Improvements Noted
Substantial improvements in most of the 20 categories of the
accident record continued. The significance of this contribution
to good management and efficiency is that this accomplishment was
made during a period of recordbreaking visitor use and a tremen-
dous increase in variety of activities in the Service programs.
?Tu. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1964 O - 723-105
He Kcmved Quirt
£ 1 2007
NIVERSITY OF GEORGIA LIBRARIE
3 ElDfl DM1MD D3ET